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What is there in it? 










Toronto : 
The M. Rogers Publishing Co. 


Entered according to Act of the Parliament of 
Canada, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-five, by M. Rogers Newman, Toronto, Ontario, 
in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. 


My object in attempting this work, is to 
provide a little practical information, on a sub- 
ject, of great interest to many who have little 
or no knowledge of the matters treated herein; 
and who have neither the time, nor the oppor- 
tunity, to undertake the study, necessary to an 
understanding of the great number of more 
scientific and more comprehensive books, now 
in print. 

I have endeavored to give, in as simple 
language as possible, an insight into the entic- 
ing business of searching for and exploiting 
Mines, carefully avoiding such matters as are 
of purely scientific value, and confining myself 
to those likely to influence people who are en- 
gaged in prospecting, or interested in Minerals, 
from commercial motives only. 

The use of scientific terms has been avoided 
where possible, and when used, care has been 
taken to explain their meaning and application. 

In short this work is intended for the benefit 
of the business man, the investor, the ranger, 
the settler, and those generally, who, if given 
a little knowledge of Mines and Mining, might 
be induced to turn that knowledge to practical 


The first part proper, deals with rocks, giv- 
ing a general idea of how they are formed 
and altered, and how mineral deposits of value 
to commerce occur in them, with the names 
and characters of rocks commonly met with in 
mining sections. 

The third part sketches the means em- 
ployed to determine, or identify, the different ores 
and minerals, with a list of all known elements 
and their symbols. 

Part four contains a description of each 
of the ores of the metals, of use as such in the arts, 
with a knowledge of how they are tested by 
simple means, and the methods employed in 
their treatment on a commercial scale. 

The fifth section describes non-metallic min- 
erals; or those used for purposes other than the 
extraction of their metals ; as at present utilized, 
and contains also, a concise description of the 
various gems and precious stones, and how 
they may be identified. 

The last section is a medley of facts, and 
hints, on various matters likely to interest any- 
one engaged in mining, or desirous of becoming 
so, and there follows a very complete glossary 
confined to mining terms and phraseology. 

Toronto, December 3ist, 1894 




Importance of exploring for Metals. Pros 

pectors as a Class. How Mines grow. Where 
hidden wealth lies 9-12 



Necessity of a knowledge of rocks, not neces- 

sarily a scientific knowledge. How rocks are 
made. Stratified rocks. Metamorphic rocks. 
Eruptive rocks. Likely formations to contain 
Metal. How ores are deposited. Veins and 
other ore bodies. The vein that pays. Iron- 
bearing rocks. Names and descriptions of rocks, 
usually found in metal mining sections !3~23 


Trials of Hardness; Streak; Tenacity; Mag- 
netism; Specific Gravity; Crystallization; Simple 
uses of the Blowpipe. Explanatory notes. 
List of Elements, with symbols, and atomic 
weights 24-34 




Gold; how found and extracted. Antimony 
ores ; how to test them. Silver ores; and their 
treatment. Lead ores ; with their commercial 
value. Platinum; its chief characteristics. 
Mercury ; where found. Copper ores ; their 
value and treatment. Zinc ores ; and associa- 
tions. Nickel and Cobalt ores. Tin ores; and 
formations found in. Bismuth. Cadmium. 
Iron Ores, with their various uses. Manganese 
ores, and how useful. Molybdenite; how dis- 
tinguished. .Graphite (Blacklead). Tellurium. 
Rare Metals 35~73 


Aluminium. Bauxite. Alum Shale. Cryolite. 
Orthoclase. Kaolin, or China Clay. Fire Clay. 
Potter's Clay. Marl. Meerschaum. Asbestos. 
Actinolite. Manganese Spar. Fluorspar. Apa- 
tite. Gypsum. Marble. Lithographic Lime- 
stone. Hydraulic Limestone. Heavy Spar. 
Rock Salt. Soapstone. Monazite. Common 
Mica. Lithia Mica. Sulphur. Phosphorus. 
Arsenic. Natural Gas. Coal. Peat. Petroleum. 
Asphaltum. "Mineral Wool." Pitchblende. 
Natural Paints. Infusorial Earth. Amber.. 74-90 


Diamond. Sapphire. Emerald. Opal. Gar- 
net. Zircon. Quartz Gems. Rutile 9i~99 




Error in rejecting samples. How to select 
samples for assay. The Chemist's information 
not sufficient. Prospector's "Kit." Samples 
for comparison. Describing a prospect. Cost 
of Railway. How to obtain capital. Choosing 
a route. What to do on making a discovery. 
When Mining should begin. The proper way 
to develop. The diamond drill. Selling small 
lots of ore. Essentials to successful mining. 
Risks of the business. The investor in stocks. 
Measures of ores, earth, etc.; how they are 
computed. Relative weights of metals. Weights 
and volumes of ordinary metals. Water re- 
quired for quartzmilling. To calculate the 
water-power of a stream. To temper steel. 
To solder, or weld. To case-harden. Table 
of melting points of metals. Weight and value 
of wood as fuel. Common alloys. Cement for 
cast-iron. Approximate cost of mining and 
treating ores, and of machinery 100-128 

A complete glossary of mining terms 129-138 







' ' DOLLY" 39 










To one who has any taste for the freedom 
and sport of the untrodden wilderness, and the 
pure, ever-changing delights of "Nature un- 
defiled" (and who has not, then is his taste per'- 
verted); every day of exploring brings its quota 
of enjoyment, hope springs eternal, the hardest 
labor brings with it such added health and 
strength as make it a pleasure, and the explorer 
at sixty, is as young in heart and feeling, as 
the ordinary business man at forty. 

In no other way, and in no other business, 
can fortunes be made, which in the making 
necessarily enrich the community at the same 
time, and in no other calling can fortune be 
realized in a day, without causing misery and 
loss to others. 

When the successful prospector finds a valu- 
able mine, he at once adds the present value of 
the find, to the wealth of the nation. When 
he converts that mine into the medium of ex- 
change which supplies his wants, and receives 
possibly a large sum therefore, he gives value 
for what he receives, and may enjoy his gains 
with a clear conscience. The opening of mines 


in any locality, means a direct and lasting bene- 
fit to all the dwellers therein; to the laborer 
work, and good wages; to the farmer an added 
market; therefore, the business of searching for 
and developing mines, is an honorable one, and 
the prospector takes rank as a public benefactor. 
Prospectors are, as a rule, unusually active 
men, both mentally and physically, and hard 
workers when in the field. The greatest trouble 
with the majority of them is this: they are 
attacked by a disease commonly called "swelled- 
head." The symptoms are the same in each 
case, the victim all at once, seems to be im- 
pressed with the mistaken idea, that each and 
every vein or deposit, found by himself, must 
necessarily be of immense value, and that a 
fortune is due the finder forthwith, nay ; in many 
cases the discoverer seems to become firmly 
and honestly imbued with the idea, that he is 
already in indisputable possession of millions; 
and no amount of argument, or reasoning by 
his friends, can dispossess him of this hallu- 
cination, while ofttimes, his friends seem also 
to share his delusion. Nothing, apparently, can 
cure this disease, save only, the remedy used on 
the mad canine cutting off his tail close to 
his ears and this, financially interpreted, is what 
cures the majority. They continue in their con- 
ceit until, weary experience and a growing scar- 


city of cash, teaches them that their wealth, 
(which may' in a sense be genuine enough) is 
not in the shape of legal tender. 

The truth is, not one find in one hundred is 
worth more than it cost, until hundreds, and 
often thousands, of dollars be spent on its ex- 

The prospector who understands his business, 
will never refuse a cash offer for his prospect, 
(received before proper development) if the same 
be sufficient to reward him for his time and 

Everyone who has had any experience of 
prospecting, and handling mining prospects, will 
recognize the truth of the saying, "that anyone 
may find a mine, but it takes a clever man to 
sell it," and as the business of mining becomes 
each year more universally understood, it will 
become more and more essential, that prospects 
be developed into mines before they can be 
disposed of to the satisfaction of the prospector, 
whose expectations are always in advance of 
any possible realization. In searching for gold 
or other mines, it is well to remember, that the 
first requisite is quantity. New processes and 
improved machinery, tend to closer saving and 
more economical work, and what is desired to- 
day is large bodies of low grade ore. Many a 
mine is paying dividends at the present time, 


that a few years ago could not be worked at 
all, because the ore was of too low grade to be 
profitably treated by the methods and appliances 
then in use. Every year is liable to see the 
tendency in this direction grow, and therefore 
deposits of low grade ore should be carefully 
looked after. 

The chemist, and the scientific mechanic are 
constantly finding new uses for different mate- 
rials. That which is worthless to-day, may 
commercially, be very valuable to-morrow, and 
as all these materials must come from the earth, 
each new appliance, or new application, becomes 
a matter of interest to all who deal with minerals. 

Unlike most deposits of wealth, a mine grows 
larger the more it is used, and more valuable, 
as the value is taken from it, and in this con- 
nection there is a hint to prospectors. Most in- 
dividuals of this class develop the roaming 
habits of gypsies, and with this a propensity for 
seeing riches a long distance away, much better 
than in the immediate neighborhood. There is 
no better prospecting field anywhere, than in 
the immediate surroundings of proved mines, 
where there is untried ground. Right under the 
feet of those who follow beaten paths, which 
have been walked over for years, lies "hidden 



The first requisite to success, in searching 
for mineral deposits of commercial value, is a 
knowledge of what rocks are likely to have in 
them; mines containing certain ores, and under 
what conditions the ore occurs, in these rocks. 

It does not follow, that a scientific know- 
ledge of the names, or chemical constituents, of 
which rocks are formed, is necessary; although 
such an education is very desirable and valu- 
able. To be able to recognize the rocks and 
minerals on sight, and a general knowledge of the 
manner in which they occur, is of greater value. 
There are between two hundred and fifty and 
three hundred distinct kinds of rocks; re- 
cognized and named by petrologists, and divided 
into three classes, as explained below; according 
to their origin. 

Rocks are seldom definite compounds, but 
the various minerals are distributed in them in 
varying proportions, and in endless combinations 
each change making more or less difference in 
their appearance; and one rock often changes 
so gradually into another kind, that no hard 
and fast lines can be drawn between them. 
Thus, Granite will in a few yards become Gneiss, 


and the Gneiss in turn give way to Mica Schist, 
or some other rock, and so on. 

The formation of rocks is going on continu- 
ously. The action of rain, frost, and many other 
agents of destruction, is slowly, but constantly 
wearing away the existing Rocks; the eroded 
material, (sand, clay, and vegetable matter 
picked up en route), being carried down by 
water and ice, ground finer and finer as it 
goes, until it reaches still water, and is depos- 
ited, in more or less irregular shapes. 

The water of a river flowing into the Ocean, 
for instance, is constantly bringing down with 
it, particles of all kinds of matter, some floating 
with the currents, others in actual chemical 
solution. On arriving at the Ocean, and all 
along the route, these atoms are deposited in 
endless combinations, those of highest specific 
gravity, being generally the first to drop, the 
lighter being carried further on. The Minerals 
in solution, mingling with others in the salt 
water, are some of them precipitated and help to 
bind the rest. 

The currents of the Ocean, are also carry- 
ing their share, perhaps, lime from the Coral 
Islands. Again the Ocean is continually en- 
croaching on its shores, whole sections of the 
shore line disappearing in a few years, or even 
months, the loosened material being carried off 


to be deposited, in varying forms elsewhere. 
This process going on without intermission, day 
after day, year after year, results in layers of 
tremendous thickness being formed, great pressure 
is developed, and in course of time, the whole 
is solidified into a series of massive beds. 

These beds, or layers, form what are called 
the Sedimentary Rocks. They consist of Lime- 
stones, Sandstones, Conglomerates, etc., as they 
are formed from shells and corals ; sand ; or 
boulders and gravel. These lie in alternate 
layers called Strata. 

Other Rocks have been ejected from great 
depths in a fused state, and in most cases have 
cooled very slowly. These are called Igneous, 
or Eruptive Rocks. They are probably formed 
from original Rocks, which have been melted 
by subterraneous heat, and have been forced up 
by gases under enormous pressure, through fis- 
sures, formed by the expansion of the gases 
rending the crust. 

Trap Dykes, and Granites, are of this origin. 

In many cases, over large areas, the whole 
of the Sedimentary Rocks have undergone great 
changes, and have been perfectly or partially 
crystallized. These are called Metamorphic 
Rocks. The change is due to heat, which was 
not great enough to cause fusion, but which, 
was probably continued for ages. 


These rocks are generally much contorted 
and fractured, and the fissures have been filled 
by the action of heated vapors, or heated springs, 
holding metals in solution, and by condensation 
and evaporation, and perhaps electrolytic action, 
dropping their contents; or by ejection of molten 
matter from below. Thus these rocks more 
often contain deposits of the metals of Commerce, 
than rocks of another origin. This brings us 
naturally to sections of rocky country likely to 
contain mines. 

Where a section shows the rocks to have 
been much disturbed, and tilted at all angles; 
where Trap Dykes, and Quartz, and Spar Veins, 
are frequently met with; there, the prospector 
may hope to succeed. The soft, schistose char- 
acter, of the rock in places is favorable. A 
discoloration, or burnt appearance, is generally 
caused by the decomposition of mineral in the 
rock, and most deposits of metal, are more or 
less softened and rotted on the surface, the de- 
composed matter being known as Gossan; (iron 

Ore deposits, may be divided into four kinds, 
according to their modes of occurrence. These 
are called veins or lodes ; pockets, placers, and 
beds, and veins occur also of four kinds. 

Veins are most frequently met with, and are 
known as: Fissure Veins; (often called true veins.) 


These are cracks or fissures, caused by the 
contraction of the Earth's surface, or by the 
bursting of the crust from internal pressure. 
They cut right through different strata at any 
angle, frequently at right angles to the strike, 
or nearly so. Contact Veins ; these run with 
the strike but between two distinct formations 
namely at the " contact." Gash Veins; are veins 
usually of small extent, surrounded and termin- 
ated on all sides by the same formation, and 
frequently are filled with galena. 

A Vein also, sometimes consists, of a number 
of small veins or stringers, running parallel to 
and at all angles with one another, with rock 
between which holds pockets of ore, and which 
is sometimes impregnated with ore. This is 
called a Stockwerke. Occasionally a vein will 
be found lying in a horizontal position and is 
then known as a " blanket " vein. 

Pockets; are masses of ore of any size, from 
a few tons upward, more or less as may happen, 
usually unconnected with each other, though 
often on the same strike, and sometimes con- 
nected by small seams, and indications of ore. 

Placers; are deposits of gravel carrying ore, 
or metal; generally applied to gold diggings. 

Sometimes secondary deposits occur, as for 
example Bog ores; these are spread out a foot 


or two deep, over larger or smaller areas, and 
may be called Beds. 

A vein is considered by miners, more likely 
to be permanent, and productive, if the walls, 
and especially the footwall, be separated from 
the vein matter, distinctly, by a soft talcose 
casing or gossan, or by clay, (called the selvage,) 
and a contact vein also, is likely to be permanent. 
Deep mining shows, that veins continue pretty 
much the same below, as they appear on the sur- 
face, where the surface can be studied for some 
distance, although the metal contents or the 
gangue, may vary considerably. Often a vein, im- 
proves in richness as it is followed down, and par- 
ticularly is this the case on first working, and 
down to the point of saturation, viz.: the distance 
to which surface water has been able to penetrate, 
which may be five or ten fathoms. Veins, are 
often enriched at the point of contact where two 
veins meet, or where the vein is cut by a Trap 
Dyke. Also a vein that is poor or barren while 
cutting one formation will sometimes prove 
productive where it intersects another kind of 
Rock. Many veins contain their value in what 
is known as a " paystreak," the ore being a 
band in the vein, sometimes in the centre, some- 
times on one side. 

While rich ores are much sought after, large 
quantities of low grade pay best. 


Iron bearing rocks are, preferably, the oldest 
geological formations, the ore beds being thicker, 
and larger, in these rocks. Mica, or hornblende 
gneiss, or schists, sometimes with a crystal- 
line limestone band on one side, is the most 
likely formation for iron ore, for manufacture 
into the metal, and the beds are usually con- 
formable to the strike and dip. The cleavable 
varieties and Ironstones, are found however, in 
both the Crystalline and Stratified Rocks. 

The distance from the centre of the Earth 
to the surface is equal to 3,956 miles. In 
comparison our highest mountains are merely 
insignificant ant-hills; our grandest canons but 
plough furrows. The temperature is constant 
the year round, at about one hundred feet in 
depth, and at lower levels invariably increases 
about 1 Fah. for each 60 feet of descent, to 
the limited depth reached in ordinary mining. 


Clayslates, breaking into thin even slabs. 


Any rock composed of coarse fragments, 
or pebbles, cemented together. When 
these are angular it is called; a BRECCIA. 
When the fragments are rounded ; a 




Soft, white limestone. Red "chalk" so 
called ; is clayey oxide of Iron. French 
"chalk" is a soapstone. 


Flint or Hornstone, occurring as nodules 
in Limestone. 

Carbonate of lime, containing carbonate 
of magnesia; strictly speaking, in equal 
proportions. Effervesces in acid on heating. 


Triclinic feldspar, and hornblende, with 
or without quartz. A tough rock, light 
gray, to blackish green in color. Eruptive. 


(Basalt, Trap.) Coarse grained. Color, 
dark green to brownish black. Eruptive. 

Quartz, Feldspar and Mica, with no ap- 
pearance of layers or cleavage, used for 
monuments, etc., taking a fine polish. 


Like Granite, but in layers, used for build- 
ing flagstones, etc. Metamorphic. 

Cleavable Labradorite ; (Lime-soda Feld- 


spar) and Pyroxene. Color, dull red, gray 
to black ; of Igneous origin. 


Green to white in color ; sometimes dark 
gray; and soft. Hydrous Mica often with 
quartz. Foliated, splitting into thin wedge 
shapes. Smooth greasy surface, and pearly 


Flexible Sandstone a schistose granular 
quartz with mica or talc. (Diamond bearing 
in Brazil.) 


A flinty quartz of dull red, yellow, or 
green color, and breaking smooth like flint. 


Carbonate of Lime, or Calcite ; generally 
contains some clay or sand. Color, cream 
or nearly white ; blue, brown, and black. 
Usually contains fossils. Crystalline lime- 
stone forms the various marbles. Effer- 
vesces with a drop of hydrochloric acid. 
Sedimentary; or if crystalline; metamorphic. 


Mostly Mica, with much quartz and some 
Feldspar. Divides easily into wedge- 
shaped slabs. Color, from silvery to black. 
Crumbles readily. Metamorphic. 



A massive rock, showing crystals distinct 
from the matrix. 

Indurated Sandstone ; that is, composed 
of quartz, but not showing grains. 


Merely a solidified bed of sand, generally 
quartz sand, sometimes contains mica, 
clay or fossils. Used for grindstones; build- 
ing, etc. 

Massive, easily cut with a knife, and 
greasy to the touch. Dark green, to 
yellowish, and mottled. Composed of 
silicate of magnesia, and a little iron. Takes 
a high polish, and is called "marble." 


Consists of Talc. Massive. Feels soapy. 
Gray to green and white. 

A rock composed of Hornblende, and 
Feldspar without quartz. Flesh colored 
or grayish white. 


Slaty Talc. Mica Schist is often mistaken 
for Talcose Schist, but does not contain 


The common term for, basic Igneous rocks. 


2 3 

Igneous rocks frequently overflow, on the sur- 
face, but sometimes the fluid matter does not 
reach the open, until by the erosion, or planing 
away of the overlying strata, it is exposed, ap- 
pearing often as a chimney. Faults, veins, tilting 
and all such phenomena are purely accidents on 

SCALE, 1,000 feet = l inch. 

a. Crystalline limestone. c. Limestone, e. Trap over- 
flow t. Slates. F. Quartzite. o. Granite (Eruptive), m. 
Gneisses (Metamorphic). N. Tilted Slates. R. Contact Vein. 
P. 2nd Vein. L. ist Vein. V. Newest Vein. x. Stringer 

a large scale. An idea of their occurrence may 
be had by supposing a confined heap, composed 
of alternate layers of sand, gravel and clay, to 
have a body of quicklime in the centre and the 
lime to become mixed with water. The effect 
would be to fissure the heap in all directions, and 
cause portions to be lifted bodily, while other 
parts would naturally fall in, and the slaked liquid 
lime would fill all crevices. 



QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS : is the determination 
of the elements contained in an ore or mineral, 
and shows what the different ingredients are, 
but does not show the amount of each. 

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: shows not only the 
nature of a compound, but also the amount, or 
percentage, of each constituent. 

The ores of the metals are distinguished, 
and recognized, by their hardness; color; streak; 
lustre; malleability; specific gravity; crystalliz- 
ation ; and chemical reactions ; minerals having 
a definite chemical composition. The first five 
tests, are those which are of most practical use 
to the prospector, and most easily made in the 

HARDNESS: This quality is particularly use- 
ful, in distinguishing many ores, (such as Copper 
Pyrites from Iron) and in deciding the possible 
value, of pebbles as gems, and many non-metallic 
minerals. This is the quality of resisting abra- 
sion, not resistance to blows. The scale runs 
from i (represented by Talc); to 10 (represented 
by the Diamond). 



1. Foliated Talc. 

2. Selenite. 

3. Calcite. 

4. Fluorite. 


1. Yields easily to the finger 


2. Does not yield to nail, or 

scratch a copper coin. 

3. Scratches a coin, but is 

also scratched by coin. 

4. Not scratched by coin, 

and will not scratch 
window glass. 

5. Scratches glass feebly; 

easily cut by a knife. 

6. Scratches glass easily, 

and is hard to cut with 
a knife. 

7. Cannot be cut by a knife. 

Harder than flint or quartz. 

;. Apatite. 

6. Feldspar. 

7. Quartz. 

8. Topaz. i 

9. Corundum. J- 
10. Diamond. J 

COLOR: This is readily seen by daylight, and 
the terms used to designate it are metallic: as 
lead-gray; iron-black; etc., non-metallic: as blue, 
bluish; gray, grayish; etc., etc. All ores showing 
bright red, blue or green colors externally, should 
be examined carefully. 

STREAK: Both the external color, and a sur- 
face that has been scratched, should be ex- 


amined. The latter is called the streak, and 
frequently show marked difference from the 
outside color. This is best examined by draw- 
ing a small three cornered file across the sample, 
and then across the thumb, or on a streak-plate. 

MALLEABILITY: This is the quality of being 
flattened out under the hammer without break- 
ing. As a rule, any ore that is soft, and easily 
cut, is likely to be of value, and if it will stand 
being hammered out, it is valuable. Also a 
mineral is said to be brittle, when easily broken, 
or sectile, when it can be sliced with a knife. 

LUSTRE : The property of reflecting light, or 
shining. The kinds of lustre are: vitreous or 
stoney; metallic; pearly; silky; resinous (or like 
gum) ; adamantine. 

Many ores tarnish on exposure, and this 
serves, in some cases as a guide, in determining 
the ore. 

DIAPHANIETY : The property of allowing light 
to pass through, as ; transparent, when an object 
is distinctly seen through the substance ; trans- 
lucent, when light is transmitted but objects are 
not seen. 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY : Is the weight of a piece 
of mineral compared with an equal bulk of pure 
water, which is taken as a standard. This is 
difficult to ascertain in the woods, requiring a 


delicate balance. Weigh a small piece of mineral 
in the ordinary manner, and then suspend it by 
a hair, in distilled water at 60 and weigh again, 
subtract the second weight from the first, and 
divide the first by the difference result is Sp. 
G. Usually the weight of a substance is a good 
guide to the amount of metal contained in it. 

MAGNETISM : Many ores are more or less 
magnetic. Black Iron ore (Lodestone) is con- 
sidered to be the only one having decided attrac- 
tion, but Nickeliferous Pyrrhotite is sometimes 
so magnetic as to form a perfect natural com- 
pass. Some minerals will only attract the needle 
after being heated, the iron in these being 
changed to the magnetic oxide by ignition. 

CRYSTALLIZATION: While Form and Structure 
are of great service in the determination of 
minerals, crystallography is a complete study 
in itself, and does not fall within the scope of 
this work. Those who desire to pursue the study 
of mineralogy, should procure a copy, of the 
Manual of Mineralogy and Lithology, by Pro- 
fessor James D. Dana, or the larger work: A 
New System of Mineralogy by Messrs. J. D. 
and E. S. Dana. 

The list in the following chapter, comprises 
most of the ores, from which metals are obtained 
for commercial purposes, at present, with the 
exception of those used in small quantities, or 


for other reasons, not of much interest to the 
ordinary prospector or business man. 

Although the amount of metal in pure ore, is 
given, practically ores are never found sufficiently 
free from impurities, to come up to the proper 
standards and due allowance should be made. 
The specific gravity varies accordingly. 

Note, that very few ores, look in the least 
like the metal they contain, even the native 
metals in a natural condition being tarnished 
and often alloyed. 

A drop of Hydrochloric Acid serves to dis- 
tinguish a carbonate, by causing an effervescence, 
but not always, without heating the substance, 
during the test. 

THE BLOWPIPE : This is a most useful aid 
in determining the different minerals. A brief 
description only, need be attempted here. Those 
who desire to follow up the hints given, are 
referred to Professor Chapman's " BLOWPIPE 
PRACTICE " a standard work on the Blowpipe. 

The essentials are; a blowpipe, (which is 
merely a tapered tube ending in a very small 
orifice, by which the flame of a spirit lamp, or 
candle, may be concentrated on a minute quan- 
tity of the substance to be examined, in powder) 
pieces of charcoal; grease lamp; spirit lamp; 
alcohol; borax; carbonate of soda; platinum and 


iron wire; bone-ash, a few pieces of glass tube 
(about % inch in diameter,) and a pair of small 
pointed forceps. 

The Blowpipe may be had from any jeweler. 
A little practice, is necessary to maintain a 
steady stream of air from the mouth. 

In making most tests the mineral is powdered 
and laid, either with, or without, an excess of 
soda, in a hollow in a piece of firm charcoal. 
The substance proves infusible, or fuses without 
yielding metal, sometimes vaporizes entirely, 
and again, leaves a coating on the charcoal, or 
a globule of metal. The flame, in some cases 
is tinged various colors, by different minerals, 
(this should be noted against a dark back- 

The coating or deposit left varies for different 
minerals and the colors change as the support 
cools. These deposits are best examined on a 
smooth piece of plaster of paris, used in place of 
the charcoal. 

To test for water, place a little powdered 
mineral in the lower end of a test tube, (closed 
at one end) and heat ; the moisture if any, will 
be found condensed at the upper part. 

A piece of mineral the size of a pin head, is 
held in the forceps to try the fusibility. 

Sulphur, Arsenic, and Selenium compounds, 


give off their peculiar odors. Arsenic smells 
like garlic. Selenium, like decaying horseradish. 

To detect Sulphur, moisten a little mineral 
and soda into a paste; fuse and place on a 
silver coin. The sulphur, if present, will stain 
the coin black. 

Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, and Lead ; yield 
malleable beads, either with or without soda. 

Platinum, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt, give 
infusible metallic grains. Bismuth and Antimony, 
brittle beads, with deposit. Mercury, Cadmium 
and Zinc, are volatilized, the two latter leaving 
heavy sublimates. 

Manganese colors a bead of borax, (formed on 
platinum wire (No. 27); by making a small loop 
on one end and fusing the borax into it, and 
then taking up a very small particle of ore;) a 
violet color. Chromium, a green color, 

Strontia, and Lithia, color the flame, deep 
carmine red. 

THE MICROSCOPE. By an examination of 
very thin slices of rock under the microscope, 
the presence, or absence, of many minerals is 
ascertained. The word Macroscopic is used to 
signify an examination, made without the use 
of the microscope, or with only a pocket lens. 

The following abbreviations are used through- 
out this work: BB.=Before the Blowpipe. H. 
=Hardness. G.=Specific Gravity. 


3 1 

The following table contains all the elements 
at present known to the chemist, and all are 
found in minerals. The atomic weights indicate 
the proportions in which they combine chemi- 
cally. The symbols are the abbreviations, used 
in stating the composition in all text-books. 


Hydrogen H. i. 

Indium In. 113.4 

Iodine I. 126.5 

Iridium Ir. 192.5 

Iron Fe. 55.9 

Lanthanum La. 138. 

Lead Pb. 206.4 

Lithium Li. 7. 

Magnesium Mg. 24. 

Manganese Mn. 54.8 

Mercury Hg. 199.8 

Molybdenum .... Mo. 96. 

Nickel Ni. 58.6 

Niobium Nb. 93.7 

Nitrogen N. 14. 

Osmium Os. 191. 

Oxygen O. 16. 

Palladium Pd. 106.2 

Phosphorus P. 31. 

Platinum Pt. 194.3 

Potassium K. 39. 

Rhodium Rh. 104.1 

Rubidium Rb. 85.2 

Ruthenium Ru. 103.5 

Scandium Sc. 44. 

Aluminium Al. 27. 

Antimony Sb. 120. 

Arsenic As. 74.9 

Barium Ba. 137. 

Beryllium Be. 9.1 

Bismuth Bi. 207.5 

Boron B. 10.9 

Bromine Br. 79.8 

Cadmium Cd. 111.7 

Caesium Cs. 58.7 

Calcium Ca. 39.9 

Carbon .C. 12. 

Cerium Ce. 141 . 

Chlorine Cl. 35.4 

Chromium Cr. 52.5 

Cobalt Co. 58.7 

Columbium (see Niobium.) 

Copper Cu. 63.2 

Didymium Di. 142. 

Erbium Er. 

Fluorine F. 

Gallium Ga. 

Germanium.. ..Ge. 


Glucinum (see Beryllium.) 
Gold Au. 196.7 


Selenium Se. 78.9 Tin Sn. 1 17.4 

Silicon Si. 28. Titanium Ti. 48. 

Silver Ag. 107.7 Tungsten W. 183.6 

Sodium Na. 23. Uranium U. 240. 

Strontium Sr. 87.3 Vanadium V. 51.1 

Sulphur S. 32. Ytterbium Yt. 172.6 

Tantalum Ta. 182. Yttrium Y. 89. 

Tellurium Te. 125. Zinc Zn. 65.1 

Thallium Tl. 203.7 Zirconium Zr. 90.4 

Thorium Th. 232. 

The chemist groups the various ores, accord- 
ing to their chemical characters, as: Sulphides; 
Arsenides ; Borates ; Carbonates ; etc. As this 
work is intended, primarily, for the use of 
miners and business men, who are only inter- 
ested, in the commercially valuable substances 
the ores contain, and care nothing about other 
constituents, save as they may affect those values; 
I have grouped each under the head of the 
metal, or other valuable ingredient, and have 
considered it better, also, to leave out any 
special mention of the undesired contents of 
the ore, except where the same affects the com- 
mercial value. 

Acid rocks, or slags; are those which con- 
tain a high percentage of free silica ; (60 to 80 
per cent.) Basic; those slags, or rocks, which 
contain little (not more than 45 or 50 per cent.) 
or no silica, in a free state. In smelting, those 
ores which contain a very large percentage of 



silica, require to be neutralized, by mixing an 
alkali (such as limestone) in the furnace, while with 
basic ores, the opposite course, is pursued. 

Miners call any mineral substance found in 
nature, which yields anything of commercial 
value, an ore. While, speaking mineralogically, 
Galena is always a lead ore, when rich in silver, 
the miner calls it a silver ore. More properly, 
ores are a combination of one or more metals, 
(called in this connection bases) with one, or 
more acids, or mineralizing agents; thus: Galena 
consists of 86.6 per cent, of lead, with 13.4 
per cent, of the acid sulphur. Very often, this 
is associated with some silver-sulphide, and 
again may contain zinc sulphide, or the ore 
may be a mixture of the above, with sulphides 
of copper, and iron. Again, we have iron in 
the form of a sulphide, ( Magnetic Pyrites, 
or Pyrrhotite) and also as a bisulphide, when 
it is non-magnetic. In this latter case we have 
an ore, of which the valuable constituent, is 
the sulphur. 

Minerals are often rendered difficult to treat, 
from the presence of some substance foreign to 
the ore, as for instance; a very small amount of 
Titanic acid, in iron oxides; which will effectually 
prevent their being utilized as a source of the 
metal by present processes. The presence of 
arsenic, replacing sulphur, in gold ores which 


carry considerable quantities of iron; renders their 
treatment much more difficult, and often, unpro- 
fitable. Antimony and Zinc are frequently very 
troublesome. The presence of these minerals 
causes the quicksilver to "flour," or "sicken," 
in which condition a coating forms over it, and 
prevents the gold from amalgamating, thus 
causing a loss of more or less metal in the 

In testing any ore by the means here out- 
lined, make the trials in the order mentioned, 
and allow a margin for slight variations, which 
will be found to exist almost invariably, even 
in samples from the same vein, blown out together. 
With the description of the ores will be found 
the simplest test or tests known, to distinguish 
or identify each, but they will only serve the 
purpose intended, when mixed with a sufficient 
portion of common sense. 



One cubic foot of Gold is worth, $363,561.96. 
Standard gold or silver, equals goo parts of pure 
metal, and 100 of alloy, in 1,000 parts of coin. 

The largest nugget of gold ever found was 
at Ballarat. Australia, in June, 1858. It was 
20 x 9 inches; weighed 2,166 ounces, and con- 
tained $41,883 value of gold. 

Pure Gold is estimated at 24 carats fine. 
Thus gold having one twenty-fourth part copper, 
or silver, would be 23 carat gold. Equal parts 
gold and another metal, would be 12 carat 
gold. All native gold, contains more or less 
silver, and sometimes other metals. Average 
of Canadian: between 85 and 90: Californian, 
87 and 89: Australian, 90 and 96 per cent. gold. 

Crystallizes in the isometric system, but 
crystals are seldom found. 

COLOR : Is the only, yellow-, malleable, min- 
eral found in a natural state. Many minerals, 
such as Pyrites, are mistaken for gold, but gold 
need never be mistaken for anything else. H.= 
2.5-3. G.=i9.3-; varying with amount of alloy. 
B.B. gives malleable bead. Is not touched by 


simple acids, but dissolves in Aqua Regia, which 
consists of one-fourth nitric to three-fourths hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Gold also occurs as a Telluride (combined 
with Tellurium); sometimes of a bronze-yellow 
color, and again of a lead-gray color. 

In searching for gold, examine first the gravel 
bars, and the holes in the rocks, forming the 
beds of streams. Never waste time in looking 
in the upper part, of the gravel bed, get down 
to the bottom. If the gold is there at all, that 
is where it will be found, along with platinum, 
iridosmine, magnetite, pyrite, copper ores, blende, 
zircon, heavy spar, monazite, and various crystals. 

Carry with you a bottle of quicksilver. After 
picking out the coarse pebbles (carefully examining 
some of them by breaking them), place a shovel 
of the finer stuff, in a shallow circular pan ; 


Fig. i. Fig. 2. 

SCALE, 1 inch = l foot. 

The best size and shape for a "pan" is shown in the cuts. Fig. 
i is the ordinary miner's pan for gravel washing. Fig. 2 is made 
of wood, or iron enameled white, and is better for quartz. 

(a frying pan, free from grease, will do very 
well, on a pinch) and with a circular swing, wash 
it with water. A little practice will enable anyone 
to retain the finer, heavier, sand, and allow the 


lighter coarse stuff, to slip over the edge of the 
pan into the stream. When nothing remains, 
but a little black sand, examine with pocket 
lens for colors of gold, then put in another shovel 
of gravel, and repeat the process. Finally, after 
a number of shovels of gravel, taken from as 
many places as possible, have been so treated, 
put in some quicksilver, and thoroughly shake 
and rub the fines together, then pour the quick- 
silver into a piece of buckskin, and squeeze it 
through the buckskin back into a clean dish, to 
be returned to its bottle. Place the remainder 
on a shovel, and heat to redness. If you have 
anything malleable left it is gold, together with 
some silver, and any lead in the ore. 

Next examine all quartz veins. The softer 
the quartz in appearance, the better the chance 
of its carrying gold. Though the writer has seen 
specimens f of quartz, as clear and hard looking 
as glass, containing gold, it is a reasonable 
theory that when gold is present, it usually 
interferes with the perfect crystallization of the 
quartz. Quartz is called the "mother of gold," 
and all gold, so far as known, is derived from 
quartz veins. Those veins cutting talcose schists, 
or clay slates, are the most favorable, rather 
than mica schist, or gneiss. The gold is frequently 
so fine, as to be invisible except to a powerful 


A small pestle, and mortar, are necessary, to 
crush the quartz to fine sand, which may be 
treated as above. 

Another and better method of trying quartz 
is, to fill a piece of glass tubing, an inch in 
diameter, one-third full of the powdered rock, 
and shake it well with quicksilver. This is very 
convenient, and by marking the space occupied 
by a known weight of ore, a very close estimate 
may, after some practice, be made, of the quan- 
tity of free milling gold, the quartz in a given 
vein carries. Or the ore may be dissolved in 
Aqua Regia, and a solution of copperas added, 
when the gold will be precipitated as a brown 
powder, which, on being rubbed, will show the 

Mica, and sulphide of iron, (Pyrite), are most 
often mistaken for gold, but these are brittle 

In known gold bearing territory, it is advisable 
to have an assay, of the quartz of all well-defined, 
persistent veins, as gold is frequently so fine, as 
to be invisible, even to a strong pocket lens. 

"Gold is where you find it," is an old saying 
amongst miners, and no man may say it will 
not be found in a given locality; where the 
geological formations; subcrystalline slates, and 
schists ; occur. 

Very few veins carry visible gold, and they 



are seldom the most valuable. A free milling 
quartz, (by which is meant, an ore free from 
arsenic, or any other refractory substance, 
and amalgamating by simple contact with mer- 
cury,) carrying as low as $5.00 per ton, in 
gold, will pay handsomely if the vein is large, 
easily accessible, the metal evenly distributed, 
and easily milled. 

A prospector should work a find of auriferous 
gravel, to some extent, before offering it for 
sale. He should sell a quartz lode, before working 
it, if he can find a purchaser, after sufficient 
development to show it as a fair prospect. 

The following sketch shows a simple and 
cheap means of working in a small way, a rich 
quartz lode, carrying coarse gold freely. It is 
known as a " Dolly," and two men with this 
device, will crush enough ore each week, to give 
a very satisfactory "clean up" by Sunday. 

A -Cushion bars. B. -Hollowed block. C. Sluices. D. Chain- 
hook. E. Spring pole. F. Dolly. G. Iron shoe. 


To make a "Dolly," cut a square hole, (in 
a hollow basin in the top of a solid block, or 
section of a log firmly planted on the bank of a 
stream), six inches wide ; fit in wrought iron 
bars, six inches long, one-half inch thick, three 
inches deep, and firmly secured. Cut away a 
portion of one side, to which attach a spout 
leading over the higher end of a sluice-box. 
The sluices may be covered on the bottom, by 
strips of blankets, and should have cross-bars 
called riffles, nailed across the bottom sufficiently 
tight to hold fine sand. After having all as solid 
as may be, dump in some quartz, broken com- 
paratively small, "swing your Dolly," and turn 
in more water at intervals, as you get "choked." 

Placer mining is carried on by hand, washing 
with a pan, or with a "cradle," (a small trough on 
rockers); or by the use of streams of water under 
pressure, washing down the gravel, through sluices. 
This latter is called hydraulic mining. 

Gold ores are treated in different ways, in 
all cases being first reduced, by stamping or 
grinding, to a fine pulp. 

First. In Freemilling ; the ore is simply 
crushed under stamps, wet, and the pulp is 
passed over copper plates, with surfaces covered 
with mercury. The gold attaches itself to the 
quicksilvered surface, in the form of amalgam, 
that is combined with quicksilver, and is scraped 


off at intervals, retorted to get rid of the mercury, 
and the residue melted into bars. 

In the Black Hills, with well arranged mills, 
ores carrying but $4.00 per ton are worked 
successfully, and in California, under exception- 
ally favorable conditions, ores having but $1.00 
of gold contents. The ore in this case being 
quarried rather than mined. 

By panning, or horning down, a pulverized 
sample the free gold may be seen, and by 
amalgamating, by rubbing with quicksilver, you 
may judge if the ore be freemilling. 

Secondly. By concentration ; most gold ores 
carry other minerals, such as the sulphurets of 
iron and copper, or lead, also zinc, and some- 
times tellurides, selenides, or antimonites, with in 
nearly every instance more or less silver. In these 
cases the ore is concentrated, that is, the rock 
matter is got rid of by washing, and the sul- 
phurets obtained in a more or less "clean" state. 
For this purpose Frue vanner machines are 
chiefly used, two old style, or one improved 
machine, being usually allowed to each battery 
of five heavy stamps. 

The principle of the Frue vanner concentrating 
machine is, an endless rubber belt, four feet 
wide, running up an inclined table, and dipping 
on the under side into a tank of water, where 


the mineral is washed off. At the head of the 
table jets of water, playing on the belt, wash 
back the lighter sand, and the water flowing 
down the incline washes it away. In addition 
there is a steady shaking motion from side to 
side, or, at right angles, which materially assists 
in the separation of the mineral from the gangue. 

The concentrates can be sold to refining 
companies, (the most profitable way, in many 
cases), or may be further treated, and the gold 
obtained by chlorination or smelting. 

In chlorination, the concentrates are placed, 
after roasting, to expel sulphur, arsenic, etc.; in 
gas-tight tubs, or barrels, holding two or three 
tons each, and chlorine gas is generated (by the 
introduction of chemicals; sulphuric acid, man- 
ganese oxide, and salt,) which is allowed to 
permeate the ore, and forms chlorides of gold, 
and silver. The metals are afterwards precipi- 
tated separately, the solutions run off, the metal 
collected, dried, melted, and cast into bars. 

Or, the sulphide ores may be reduced by 
roasting, and amalgamating in pans, or by 
smelting direct. We have last year, to record 
another new process, which appears to be suc- 
cessful in treating mispickel ores ; namely, those 
carrying a great deal of arsenic. This is known 
as the Carter- Walker process, by which the 


ore is roasted in closed chambers, the acids 
saved, and the gold obtained by vaporizing 

Colonel Harvey Beckwith, the widely known 
expert on gold mining and milling, makes a 
favorable report on this process, -which may 
possibly solve the difficult problem, of how to 
treat mispickel ores, carrying gold. 


This metal is used, chiefly, as an alloy. It 
is a brittle silver-white metal obtained from its 
ores, which occur in the primary rocks, frequently 
with silver, lead, zinc, and iron ores. G. 6.7. 

The ore from which most of the metal of 
commerce is obtained, is the sulphide ; 


Trimetric, commonly with fibrous appearance. 
Color and streak, lead-gray. Lustre, shining. 
Tarnishes. Brittle. H.=2. G.=4-5 4.62. Con- 
tains 71.8 per cent, of antimony; with 28.2 per 
cent, of sulphur. B.B. Is volatilized, with dense 
white fumes. 7.1 cubic feet=one ton. This ore 
is soft, and will melt in the flame of a candle. 

NATIVE. Generally massive, occasionally in 
rhombohedral crystals. Color and streak, tin- 
white. H.=3 3.5. G.=6.6 6.75. Pure Anti- 
mony; often with silver. B.B. volatilizes, tinging 


the flame green, and leaving a heavy white 
deposit on charcoal. 4.8 cubic feet in one ton. 

Compounds of Antimony and Silver, are often 
met with, and when rich in silver make a valu- 
able ore. 

Is a pure white metal, very ductile, harder 
than gold, but softer than copper. G, = 10.53. 

The ores of silver are found in rocks of 
all geological ages, in any kind of vein below 
the coal measures. The ores are of many dif- 
ferent kinds, and silver is found abundantly in 
many other ores, such as lead, antimony, zinc, 
and copper ores. 

NATIVE SILVER only, is white in color, among 
ores of silver, though dark and dull on the 
surface, and has streak, silver-white and shining. 
Often tarnished brownish-black. Malleable; cuts 
with knife. Occurs in octahedrons, arborescent 
shapes, or massive. H.=2 3. G.=IO.I n.i. 
Generally contains some copper, and sometimes 
gold. B.B. gives malleable bead. 


In dodecahedrons, and modifications, or massive. 
Color and streak, blackish lead-gray. Cuts with 
knife, slightly malleable. H.=2 2.5. G.=J 
7.4. Contains 87.1 per cent, of silver, with 12.9 
per cent, of sulphur. A valuable silver ore. 



B.B. gives malleable bead of silver. 4.4 cubic 
feet make one ton. 


Rhombohedral. Usually in crystals, some- 
times massive. Color, black to bright red. 
Streak, bright red. Lustre, brilliant. H.=2 
2.5. G.=5-7 5.9. Contains 59.8 per cent, 
silver; with 17.7 sulphur; and 22.5 per cent, of 
antimony. Usually in crystals. B.B. gives bead 
with soda. 5.5 cubic feet weigh one ton. 


Like Pyrargyrite. G.=5-4 5.56. Contains 
65.5 per cent, of silver; with the antimony re- 
placed in part, or wholly, by arsenic. 5.8 cubic 
feet weigh one ton. 


Trimetric ; often in compound crystals, or 
massive. Color and streak, iron-black. H. = 2.5. 
G.=6.27. Contains 68.5 per cent, of silver; 
16.2 of sulphur; and 15.3 of antimony. B.B. 
gives bead with soda. 5 cubic ft. weigh one ton. 

Dissolved in weak nitric acid, will silver a 
piece of clean copper. 


Isometric. In cubes, or massive. Color, 
gray, green, or blue. Lustre, resinous. Streak, 
shining. Cuts like horn or wax, and on an 


outcrop looks like dirty cement. Melts in candle 
flame. Contains 75.3 per cent, of silver ; and 
24.7 per cent, of chlorine. A valuable ore. B.B. 
gives bead easily. 

bromine. Bromine, 42.6 per cent. Silver, 57.4 
per cent. A common ore. 

There are many other ores of silver, but the 
above list comprises all the ores commonly 

Silver ores are treated by freemilling, or 
direct amalgamation in pans, each charge being 
worked for several hours, through a series of 
pans. This method is applicable to Native Silver; 
Horn Silver, and certain forms of sulphides. 
The presence of such base metals as Iron, Copper, 
Lead, Zinc, or Antimony, interferes with the 
process when concentration, and sometimes 
roasting-milling, or roasting the ore with salt, 
must be resorted to. 

Silver mining requires expensive plant, and 
large capital, with expert management. 

The simplest test for the presence of silver 
is: to dissolve the ore in nitric acid, and pour 
in strong salt water. This throws down white 
flakes, and on exposing these to the sun, they 
w T ill turn black if the ore contain silver. 

Have any ore suspected to contain silver 


assayed. On an average, at least $10 per ton as 
mined, is necessary to constitute a paying ore. 
One cubic foot of silver is worth $13,008.67. 

NATIVE. Is a soft, bluish gray metal. Leaves 
a mark on paper. Malleable. B.B. fuses easily, 
and volatilizes, leaving a yellow ring on charcoal. 
Of rare occurrence. G. =11.85. 


Isometric. In cubes, also granular, or rarely 
fibrous. Color and streak, lead-gray. Shining. 
Easily broken. H.=2.5- G.=7-25 7.7. Con- 
tains 86.6 per cent, of lead (when pure); 13.4 per 
cent, of sulphur; and from one or two to several 
thousand ounces of silver. B.B. covers charcoal 
with yellow deposit. If carefully treated, finally 
yields bead of lead. If bead be placed on a 
bone-ash cup, or a cavity in charcoal, filled with 
fine bone-ash, smoothly pressed in ; and further 
treated, the lead will be absorbed, and the silver 
obtained nearly pure. 4.3 cubic feet weigh one 
ton. Galena is the chief source of lead. 


Color, red to yellow. Pulverulent. G.=4-6. 
B.B. yields bead of lead. Manufactured for the 


Color, white to gray. H.=3. 3.5. G.=6.48. 


Contains 75 per cent, lead, with oxygen, carbonic 
acid and impurities. Artificially made. 

There are many other ores of lead, containing 
various amounts of silver, almost all of which, 
are found in association with galena, some abund- 
ant in certain localities, others of rare occurrence. 
All are distinguished at once, by specific gravity, 
and by yielding lead before the blowpipe. 

Lead ores are valuable, in the proportion of 
their silver contents, but when worked for lead 
alone, should average not less than 40 per cent, 
of metal. 

Lead ores carrying silver, are treated by 
concentration and smelting, or smelting alone. 
Like nickel, and copper, the first product or 
matte is frequently sold to refiners. The plant 
is necessarily costly, and all furnace operations 
depend for success, on skilful management by 
experts. Also, it is almost an essential, that a 
mixture of ores from different mines be made, 
and these must be carefully selected, and taken 
in certain proportions, which continually vary, 
for different ores. Fragments of lead ore, or 
heavy spar in crumbling magnesian limestone, 
depressions in a straight line, or the red color 
of the soil on the surface indicate lead veins, 
which are found in rocks of all ages up to the 
carboniferous, the largest being usually found in 
Silurian limestones overlying slates. 




Is a bright, white metal, heavier than gold. 
It is used chiefly for chemical and electrical 
apparatus. G.=2i.i5 when pure. 

NATIVE. Color and streak, steel-gray. Lustre, 
metallic, bright. Isometric, but seldom in crystals. 
Can be drawn out. Malleable. H,=4 4.5. 
G. = i6 19. Not touched by simple acids. Dis- 
solves in Aqua Regia. Found in gravel, with 
gold, usually alloyed with other rare metals, and 
copper or iron. Derived from crystalline rocks. 
B. B. Infusible, and wholly unaltered; these 
qualities identify it at once. 2 cubic feet weigh 
one ton. 

SPERRYLITE. Color, tin-white. Lustre, bright. 
H.=about 7. G. = io.6. Contains 56.7 per cent, 
of Platinum. Crystals very minute. Found only 
in the Sudbury section of Ontario; in detritus 
composed of gossan, and rock in a decomposed 
condition, apparently derived from seams of 
ferruginous mica schist, with some copper pyrites. 
The largest nugget of native platinum known 
was found in 1827, in the Ural mountains, and 
weighed 21 pounds. It measures 4x7 inches. 


Has a strong affinity for other metals, gold, 
silver, lead, etc., forming an amalgam. It is 


Used to extract gold and silver; for mirrors, 
barometers, etc., and largely in medicine. Com- 
monly called QUICKSILVER. 

NATIVE. Bright, white, and liquid, at normal 
temperature, melting at 39. G.=i3-6 at 32. 
Occurs in globules scattered through the gangue, 
derived from the sulphide; 

CINNABAR . In rhombohedral crystals, or massive. 
Color, bright red, blackish or brownish. Lustre, 
unmetallic. Streak, scarlet-red. Crystals are 
nearly transparent. LIVER ORE; Isdull, of same 
color and streak. H.=2 2.5. G.=8.5 9. It 
is identical with the brilliant red pigment, ver- 
million. B.B. vaporizes. 3.6 cubic feet weigh 
one ton. Can be cut with a knife. Contains 86.2 
percent, of mercury ; and 13.8 percent, of sulphur. 
Found in schists and slates, both the older 
rocks, and those of later age. Never found in 
quantity, in the more crystallized rocks, such 
as Gneiss. The mercury of commerce is obtained 
by distillation, although, it is sometimes dipped 
up in buckets, from fissures in the rocks con- 
taining the ores. 


Is a very tough, ductile metal, of a fine red 
color, taking a bright polish, but quickly tarnishing. 
Used largely in the arts, both alone, and in brass 
and other alloys, also in plating. Large quan- 
tities are now used in electric railway plant. 


NATIVE. Isometric, and tree-like forms. Color, 
copper-red. Malleable. Can be drawn out. H.= 
2.5 3. G.=8.84. Pure copper occurring in 
veins ; in grains, and masses : usually enriched 
where crossed by dykes. Sometimes accom- 
panied by native silver, and occasionally spread 
out in floors. B.B. yields bead of copper, which 
shines brightly while hot, but becomes covered, 
on cooling, with black oxide. Dissolves easily 
in nitric acid. It is mined when yielding but 
one per cent, of copper. 


Trimetric. In compound crystals, also mas- 
sive. Color and streak, blackish to lead-gray, 
often tarnished blue, and green. H.=2.5 3. 
G.=5.5 5.8. Contains 79.8 per cent, copper; 
and 20. 2 per cent, of sulphur. B.B. gives bead 
of copper. 5.7 cubic feet weigh one ton. 


Isometric. Generally massive. Color, copper- 
red to pinchbeck-brown. Tarnishes rapidly. 
Streak, grayish-black, slightly shining. Brittle. 
H.=3. G.=5. Contains copper 55.58 per cent.; 
iron, 16.36 per cent.; with sulphur, 28.6 percent.; 
but varies greatly. B. B. fuses to magnetic 
globule. Also called ERUBISCITE. 


Dimetric. Generally in octohedral crystals, 


or massive. Color, brass-yellow. Streak, greenish- 
black, dull. H.=3.5 4. G.=4.i5 4.3. Contains 
34.6 per cent, of copper; 34.9 per cent, of sulphur; 
and 30.5 per cent, of iron. Will not scratch glass. 
B.B. gives brittle bead. 7.6 cubic feet weigh one 
ton. Should carry not less than six per cent, of 
metal, as mined, to make a profitable ore. 


Isometric. In tetrahedral forms. Color, steel- 
gray, to iron-black, with streak inclined to red. 
H.=3 4.5. G.=4-5 5.12. Contains 91.9 per 
cent, of copper, but varies greatly, sometimes 
containing 10 per cent, to 30 per cent, of silver, 
with usually iron, zinc, and antimony. A valu- 
able ore, and easily worked. B.B. gives bead of 
copper, or copper and silver. 6.6. cubic feet 
weigh one ton. Sometimes contains platinum. 


Isometric. In octahedrons, or massive, some- 
times earthy. Color, red, of various dark shades. 
Streak, brownish-red. Lustre, adamantine. Brittle. 
H.=3.5 4. G. =5.85 6.6. Contains 88.8 per 
cent, of copper, with 11.2 per cent, of oxygen. 
B.B. gives bead of copper. 5 cubic feet weigh 
one ton. 


Color, bright green. Lustre, shining or earthy. 
G.=2 2.4. Contains 30 per cent, to 35 per 



cent, of copper, with silica. A secondary deposit, 
but sometimes valuable. B.B. with soda, gives 
a bead of copper. 


This ore is polished, and used for inlaid work, 
and even jewellery. Colors, blue or green, of 
varying shades (deep blue to light green). Streak, 
paler. Soft ore, dull in appearance. Contains 
56 per cent, of copper; 14 per cent, of oxygen; 
22 per cent, of carbonic acid ; and 8 per cent, 
of water. Not important as a source of metal. 
B.B. colors the flame green, and quickly yields 
metallic copper. 8.2 cubic feet weigh one ton. 



Color, deep blue. Sometimes transparent. 
Streak, bluish. Brittle. H.=3.5 4.5. G.= 
3.5 3.85. Used only for ornamental purposes. 

Copper occurs, as arsenate, phosphate, vana- 
date, and in very many combinations, other than 
those described, which are the important ores to 
the miner. 

Native copper is recognized at once. The 
ores are distinguished mainly by lively colors, 
and nearly all turn bright green on exposure, 
and B.B. tinge the flame green. The value of a 
find of any ore of copper depends on the quantity. 
The native metal veins are the paying mines, 
and always act on the compass. When the 


prospect of the deposit being large is satisfactory, 
get an assay. The ores of copper may some- 
times be shipped to advantage, after simple 
concentration, and are readily purchased by 
refiners. There are several other ores, of little 
interest commercially. 

Copper ores are reduced, by smelting, after 
concentration by hand or machines, and in the 
case of sulphide ores, a preliminary process of 
calcination, or roasting, is resorted to. 


NICKEL. Is a brilliant, white metal, which does 
not tarnish, and is very ductile. It is used 
chiefly as an alloy, and in plating. 
COBALT, Is a lustrous, reddish-gray metal, very 
brittle, and sometimes granular sometimes fi- 
brous. Is not used as a metal, except in plating, 
but mainly for the production of smalt, the blue 
coloring matter. Neither are found native. 

obtained much of the nickel of commerce. It 
is identical with ordinary magnetic pyrites, save 
that it carries the nickel. The nickel at Sudbury, 
Ontario, is derived almost entirely, from this 
ore, which is intimately mixed with copper 
pyrites, and often contains besides the nickel; 
cobalt; occasionally a little galena; silver, or 
gold; and in at least one case, tin. Although 


the average nickel contents of the ore, is less 
than 2^- per cent., it runs as high as 30 per 
cent., and even 40 per cent., in certain samples. 
Anything over two per cent, in nickel will pay 
to mine, if in large quantities. DIORITE (a 
tough, hard, greenish to black colored, eruptive 
rock); appears to be the true nickel-bearing rock 
at Sudbury, and the deposits of ore already dis- 
covered will supply all demands for the metal 
which are likely to be made for many years, 
while but a comparatively small section of the 
nickel-bearing area has been properly prospected. 
Other ores of nickel, of which some are found 
in the Canada range, are : 


Isometric. Generally massive. Color, pale 
steel-gray, tarnishing copper-red. Streak, dark 
gray. H.=5.5. G.=4-8 5. Contains when 
pure, 58 per cent, of Cobalt, generally replaced 
in part by nickel, with 42 per cent, of sulphur. 
B.B. yields no metal, but colors borax bead 
deep blue. 6.5 cubic feet weigh one ton. 


Rhombohedral. Usually in needle-like crys- 
tals. Color, brass-yellow, to bronze-yellow, with 
gray tarnish. Streak, bright. H.=3 3.5. G.= 
4.6 5.65. Contains when pure ; 64.4 per cent, 
of nickel, and 35.6 per cent, of sulphur. B.B. 
yields no metal. 6.2 cubic feet weigh one ton. 



Isometric. Color, silver-white, with a reddish 
tinge. Streak, grayish-black. Brittle. H.=5.5. 
G.=6.63- Contains 45.2 per cent, of arsenic; 
19.3 per cent, of sulphur; and 35.5 per cent, of 
cobalt; often with iron and copper. B.B. gives 
sulphur and arsenic fumes, with magnetic globule; 
with borax, a cobalt-blue bead. 


Isometric. Occurs in many forms, often 
massive. Color, tin-white. Streak, dark gray. 
H.=5.5 6. G.=6-4 7.2. Contains from 22 
per cent, each of nickel, and cobalt, to 44 per 
cent, of nickel alone, with 50 per cent, of arsenic, 
and some iron. B.B. yields no metal. 4.7 cubic 
feet weigh one ton. 


Hexagonal. Generally massive. Color, cop- 
per-red. Streak, brownish-red. Lustre, metallic. 
H.=5 5.5. G.=7-3 7.7. Contains 44 per cent, 
nickel, and 56 per cent, of arsenic. B.B. yields 
no metal. 4.2 cubic feet weigh one ton. 


Color, steel-gray. Streak, blackish-gray. Lus- 
tre, bright. H.=5.5. G.=5-6 6.9. Contains 
35 per cent, of nickel, (sometimes more); 45 per 
cent, of arsenic; and 20 per cent, of sulphur. 5 
cubic feet weigh one ton. 




Color, green. Streak, uncolored. Yields 6 to 
8 per cent, of nickel. Chiefly mined in New 
Caledonia; also found in Oregon, U.S.A. 

The following new ores of nickel are reported 
by Dr. Emmens, from Sudbury, Canada. 


Massive, with platy structure. Color, bronze- 
yellow. Streak, greyish-black. Lustre, metallic. 
H.=3-5. G.=(approximately) 4.73. Contains 
32.87 per cent, of nickel. 


Color, pale bronze-yellow. Streak, black. 
Lustre, metallic. Tarnishes rapidly on exposure. 
H.=about 4. G.=about 3.73. Contains 6.10 
per cent, of nickel. 8 cubic feet weigh one ton. 


Color, olive-gray to bronze. Lustre, metallic. 
Streak, black. H.=3 3.5. G. 4.2. Non- 
magnetic. Contains 3.5 per cent, of nickel. 
Named after Mr. Archibald Blue, Director of 
Ontario Bureau of Mines. 


Color, black or blue-black. Contains over 
20 per cent, of cobalt oxide. Occurs as a bog 
ore with manganese, iron and copper, and nickel. 

There are many other ores of nickel and 


cobalt, occurring rarely, or as products of other 
and more abundant ores. All occur in the lower 
formations, and cobalt ores, invariably, are found 
in connection with nickel. 

Compounds of nickel before the blowpipe 
yield no metal, but leave a bead of borax, gray 
with specks of reduced nickel. 

Cobalt and nickel ores are first smelted into 
a rich concentrate or matte, and then refined by 
the use of acids ; in most cases. The ore as in 
copper, is when a sulphide, first roasted to 
expel the greater portion of the sulphur. The 
refining, when done with acids is a slow and 
costly process, but new methods are being suc- 
cessfully adopted, and it is probable that this 
will, in the near future, be done by electrolysis. 

The mining and treating of these ores, re- 
quires large capital, and great skill is necessary 
to obtain economical results. 

Smelting furnaces were formerly, built of 
common brick, and lined with fire-brick, whether 
blast furnaces, or reverberatory furnaces; but 
the American water jacket furnace, is to-day 
the ideal blast furnace, being built of cast iron, 
wrought iron, or mild steel, protected by an 
Outer wall, or jacket, of the same material, 
through which a stream of water constantly 
circulates, thus protecting the furnace, so that, 
except for an accident, nothing compels a stop- 



page, unless for a general overhauling of the 
plant, at long intervals. The molten metal, and 
slag, is allowed to run constantly, as fused, into 
a water protected well, (on wheels, easily re- 
moved without stopping the operation), and 
thence, the metal, sinking by its greater gravity, 
is tapped into moulds or pots, while the lighter 
slag flows steadily from a spout at the top, and 
is removed in iron pots on wheels, or sometimes 
granulated by allowing it to drop into water. 

By the introduction of a powerful blast, of 
hot or cold air, a great saving. of fuel is effected, 
and a much greater capacity obtained. A fur- 
nace has lately been introduced which utilizes 
the sulphur contained in pyritic ores as fuel, thus 
making the ore smelt itself. 


Is a silvery white metal, of high lustre, and 
malleable, but not ductile, used in alloys, or as 
a coating for other metals. 

There are but two ores of tin, and these 
occur usually in small veins of quartz. Tin is 
also obtained from gravel, and is then called 
Stream Tin. The veins occur in granite, gneiss, 
and mica slate, and the associated minerals are 
copper and iron pyrites. They are considered 
worth working, when but a few inches wide. 



Massive, or in grains. Color, steel-gray to 
iron-black. Streak, blackish. Brittle. H.==4. 
G.=4-3 4.6. Contains 27 per cent, of tin ; 30 
per cent, of sulphur; 30 per cent, of copper, 
and 13 per cent, of iron. Found sparingly, hardly 
to be called an ore of tin, and oftener worked 
for copper. 7.2 cubic feet make one ton of ore. 


Dimetric. Crystals often compounded. Also 
massive, and in grains. Color, brown to black. 
Streak, gray to brownish. Lustre, shining. H. 
=6. 7. G.=6.4 7.1. Its high specific gravity 
is characteristic. Contains 78.67 per cent, of 
tin, and 21.33 per cent, of oxygen. B.B. with 
soda gives bead of tin. 

Looks like blende, or a dark garnet. Very 
hard, will strike sparks with steel. 4.7 cubic 
feet weigh one ton. Mined chiefly in Cornwall. 
The Cornish mines were worked in Roman times, 
and are now very deep. The tin veins in Da- 
kota, U.S., are gold-bearing, and the formation 
is quartzite, sandstone, and slate, overlying granite. 
Phosphate minerals also, occur abundantly. 


NATIVE. Rhombohedral. Generally massive. 
Color and streak, silver white, with slight red 
tinge. Tarnishes. May be hammered out a little 



when heated, but is brittle when cold. H.=2 
2.5. G. =9. 79. 8. B.B. fuses very easily, vapor- 
izes, and leaves a dark yellow coating on charcoal, 
which becomes paler on cooling. Pure Bismuth, 
3.2 cubic feet weigh one ton. Found with ores 
of silver, cobalt, and gold. Used chiefly as an 
ingredient in fusible metal, also in medicine, and 
as a pigment. Bismuth occurs in several other 
ores. Found in same formations as copper. Oc- 
curring in gneiss and other crystalline rocks. 


This metal is white like tin, but so soft it 
leaves a mark on paper. Used as a solder (with 
tin), for aluminum. There is but one ore: 

prisms. Color, light yellow. Lustre, brilliant; 
nearly transparent. H.=3 3.5. G.=4.8 5. 
B.B. fuses easily, and leaves, if fused on a piece 
of plaster of paris, a dark brown, or reddish 
brown deposit. 6.5 cubic feet weigh one ton. 
Cadmium is often associated with zinc ores. 

A brittle, bluish-white metal, crystalline, and 
very lustrous on fresh broken surface. Used 
with copper, to make brass; as roofing sheets; 
and as paint; also to coat iron (galvanized.) 
B.B. covers charcoal with zinc oxide, yellow 
while hot, white when cold. 



Isometric. Generally massive; rarely fibrous. 
Various colors. Streak, white to reddish brown. 
Cleavage perfect. Waxy. Brittle. H.=3.5 4. 
0.^=3.9 4.2. Contains 67 per cent, of zinc; 33 
per cent, of sulphur. B.B. nearly infusible. 
Looks like pieces of resin or dirty gum. 8 cubic 
feet weigh one ton. Known as BLACK JACK. 


Hexagonal. ' Usually in separate grains. Color, 
bright red. Streak, orange. Lustre, brilliant; 
translucent. Foliated like Mica. H.=4 4.5. G. 
=5.4 5.7. Contains 80.3 per cent, of zinc; and 
19.7 per cent, of oxygen. B.B. gives no bead, 
but fuses with borax, and leaves a coating on coal. 
5.8 cubic feet weigh one ton. A valuable zinc ore. 


Rhombohedral. Usually massive. Color, im- 
pure white, green or brown. Streak, uncolored. 
Lustre, stony. Translucent. Brittle. H.=5. 
G.=4-3 4.45. Contains about 52 per cent, of 
zinc, with often some Cadmium. B.B. infusible 
alone, but with soda leaves a deposit on charcoal, 
which moistened with nitrate of cobalt, turns 


Trimetric. Usually massive. Color, white, 
bluish, grayish, or brownish. Streak, uncolored, 


6 3 

Lustre, vitreous. Nearly transparent. Brittle. 
H.=4-5 5. G.=3-i6 3.9. Contains 67.5 per 
cent, of zinc oxide; 25 per cent, of silica; and 
7.5 per cent, of water. B.B. almost infusible. 
Yields no metal, but acts same as Smithsonite. 
10 cubic feet weigh one ton. 

Zinc ores occur in rocks of all ages, gene- 
rally associated with lead ores, and often with 
\copper, iron, tin and silver. There are various 
>res of zinc not of much value, as a source of 
the metal. It is often a detrimental substance 
in gold and silver mines, making the ore difficult, 
to treat. The metal is obtained by distillation 
in retorts of various forms. The furnaces, and 
accessories, require considerable capital, and 
skilled management. 


NATIVE. Found in the metallic state in meteor- 
ites, and occasionally, in grains in some rocks, 
but never in commercial quantity, unless we 
except, some masses of a ton weight found in 


Isometric. Usually in cubes, or massive. 
Color, brass yellow. Streak, brownish-black. 
Lustre, of crystals, brilliant. Brittle. H.=6 
6.5. G.=4.8 5.1. B.B. yields no metal, but a 
magnetic globule. Contains 46.7 per cent, of 


iron; and 53.3 per cent, of sulphur, which latter 
constitutes the valuable part of this ore, being 
used to obtain the sulphuric acid of commerce. 
Will scratch glass. 6.5 cubic feet equal one ton. 


Hexagonal. Generally massive. Color, be- 
tween bronze-yellow and copper-red. Streak, 
grayish-black. Often with dark tarnish. H.=3-5 
4.5. G.=4.4 4.65. B.B. yields no metal, 
but changes to the red oxide. Contains 60.5 per 
cent, of iron; 39.5 per cent, of sulphur. Tarnish- 
'es easily. Valuable as an ore of nickel. (See 
under head of Nickel.) Also used to make green 
vitrol. 7.1 cubic feet equal one ton. 


Trimetric. Also occurs massive. Color, silver- 
white. Streak, grayish-black. Lustre, shining. 
Brittle. H.=5.5 6. G.=6-3. B.B. yields no 
metal, but fumes of arsenic, which have the odor 
of garlic, and may be perceived on striking the 
ore smartly with a hammer. 5 cubic feet equal 
one ton. Contains 46 per cent, of arsenic (which 
is its valuable constituent); 19.6 per cent, of sul- 
phur; and 34.4 per cent, of iron. Sometimes it is 
rich in gold, but until recently this could not be 
profitably extracted, owing to the difficulty of 
getting rid of the arsenic, which prevented its 
successful treatment. Now, however, with lately 


perfected processes, it is possible to treat the 
most arsenical ores economically, and prospectors 
should have mispickel ores examined for gold. 
None of the above ores are used for the making 
of iron and steel. 


Under this and following heads are included 
most of the ores from which pig iron and steel 
are made. Varieties are: micaceous, red hema- 
tite, red chalk, clay iron stone. Rhombohedral, 
massive, granular, sometimes micaceous, also 
earthy. Color, red, steel-gray or iron-black. Streak, 
cherry-red, or reddish brown. Hardness varies; 
from 6.5 down to earthy ores. Contains 70 per 
cent, of metallic iron; (when pure); and 30 per 
cent, of oxygen. B.B. infusible. The streak will 
identify this ore under all its forms. The darker 
the ore the redder the streak. Not magnetic 
before heating unless it contains magnetite. 6.6 
cubic feet equal one ton. 

A Bessemer ore, (by which is meant, an ore 
suitable for the manufacture of steel by the 
Bessemer process, now chiefly employed) should 
be practically free from sulphur, and phosphorus, 
and entirely free from titanic acid. The higher 
the percentage of metallic iron the more valuable 
the ore, anything over 60 per cent, being high 



Isometric. Massive ; also granular. Color, 
iron-black. Streak, black. H.=5.5 6,5. G.= 
5 5.1. Contains (when pure) 72.4 per cent, of 
metallic iron; and 27.6 per cent, of oxygen. 
B.B. infusible. 6.4 cubic feet equal one ton. 
Strongly magnetic, so much so that deposits are 
frequently discovered by the variation of the 
compass. If your compass wavers, and inclines 
to point very much east or west, look for iron 
along the nearest contact. By means of a dip- 
needle (a magnetic needle suspended to swing 
freely up and down between two pivots, instead of 
round, on one, like the compass;) the ore deposit 
may be found when no exposure exists, but a 
very magnetic ore will cause the needle to turn 
completely over when in small quantities, and 
in some cases it is very misleading. An expert 
in the use of the needle can get surprisingly 
accurate knowledge of a deposit, even when 
covered by many feet of barren rock. An attrac- 
tion confined to a few feet, is apt to be caused 
by a boulder. If it continues along the strike it 
indicates a lode. A continuous attraction is 
better evidence of value than a strong one. Some- 
times found, as a black sand. Often in quartz 
veins, distributed in small pieces through the vein, 
but not in commercially valuable quantity, and 
such veins seldom contain any ore of value. 


LODESTONE. Some specimens are natural mag- 
nets. Place a piece on a light chip of wood 
floating in a basin of water, and it will turn 
north and south, being a natural compass. 


Isometric; also massive. Color, iron -black. 
Streak, reddish-brown. Brittle. H.=5.5 6.5. 
G.=4-5 5.1. Usually magnetic, but less so than 
magnetite. Formula, like magnetite, but with 
part of iron replaced by zinc and manganese. 
B.B. with soda on charcoal, gives zinc coating. 
Occurs in large deposits. 


Massive; with smooth surface, or spongy. 
Color, dark brown to ochre-yellow. Streak, light 
brown to dull yellow. H.=5 5.5. G.=3.6 4. 
Various forms; from a hard clay ironstone, to 
yellow and brown ochre. Same as hematite, but 
contains 14 per cent, of water. 8.4 cubic feet 
equal one ton of ore. 


This occurs in low ground, and is of con- 
siderable value; furnishing large quantities of 
iron, though chiefly used, by local furnaces, and 
for fluxing more difficult ores. Contains, when 
pure, about two-thirds its weight of iron. Occurs 
in beds a few feet deep, spread over larger or 
smaller areas. 



Rhombohedral. Usually massive, and foliated. 
Color, light grayish to brownish-red. Streak, 
imcolored. H.=3. 4.5. G.=3.7 3.9. Contains 
62.1 per cent, of iron protoxide. Often with 
manganese. B.B. infusible, but becomes mag- 
netic. 8.4 cubic feet equal one ton. Used largely 
for the manufacture of iron and steel, and found 
in many rocks, gneiss, mica schist, and clayslate. 


Isometric. Usually massive, with rough sur- 
face. Color, iron-black to brownish-black. Streak, 
dark brown. Lustre, submetallic or dull. H.= 
5.5. G.=4.3 4.6. Slightly magnetic. B.B. 
fusible with borax. Nearly the, same as mag- 
netite, but contains Chromium. 7 cubic feet 
equal one ton. Used largely as paint. 

Iron occurs in nature in endless combinations, 
but the above ores include all of interest (as 
iron) to commerce. B.B. all iron ores become 
magnetic, and some contain manganese and 
zinc, as mentioned above. 

The metal iron is obtained from its oxide 
ores, by smelting in blast furnaces, with lime- 
stone as a flux, the plants being of large capacity, 
and requiring very large capital for their suc- 
cessful operation. Steel, is made chiefly by the 
Bessemer process of forcing air upward through 
the molten metal, in open crucibles, no further 


6 9 

fuel being required. Coke is the usual fuel used 
in smelting, but large quantities of iron are 
made with charcoal, and for some purposes, the 
iron so made, is superior to any other. In any 
case a mixture of ores is required. 

The value of a deposit depends, after quality 
is proved, on its being of great extent, and 
within easy reach of shipping facilities. An iron 
mine filling all the above conditions, is possibly, 
the best investment to be got. (See also, Iron 
Rocks page 19.) 


Is never used as a metal in the pure state, 
but is used chiefly as a source of oxygen. It 
is largely used in the arts for bleaching, clearing 
glass, and many other purposes. It is never 
found in the metallic state. B.B. the ores yield 
no metal, but color a borax bead violet. 


Trimetric. Massive, sometimes fibrous. Col- 
or, iron-black. Streak, black. H.=2 2.5 G.= 
4.8. Contains 63.2 per cent, of manganese; 36.8 
per cent, of oxygen. 6.6 cubic feet equal one 
ton. This ore is now used as a so.urce of oxygen, 
for illuminating purposes. 


Occurs massive. Color, black or greenish- 
black. Streak, reddish-black and shining. H. 


5 6. G. 4 4.4. Contains nearly same amount 
of manganese as pyrolusite, but varies, and 
contains some baryta or potassa. 7.6 cubic feet 
equal one ton. 


Massive, or earthy. Color, and streak, black 
or brownish-black. H.=i 6. G.=3 4. Earthy, 
soils the fingers. 9.1 cubic feet equal one ton. 
Used as a paint, and sometimes consists of ir- 
regular globules in beds, a foot or more in depth, 
mixed with soil. 


Rhombohedral. Color, rose-red. Cleaves like 
Calcite. H. 3.5 4.5. G. 3.4 3.7. Contains 
61.4 per cent, of manganese protoxide ; and 38.6 
per cent, of carbonic acid, with part of manganese 
often replaced by calcium, magnesium, or iron. 

The ores are found in same formations, and 
under same conditions as iron, and also contain- 
ing silver, which makes a very valuable ore, and 
one easily worked. 


plates, or masses foliated in thin plates like 
tinfoil. Color and streak, lead-gray, the streak 
with green tinge. Lustre, bright on fresh cleav- 
age. H.=i 1.5. G.=4-5 4.8. B.B. infusible, 


but gives fumes of sulphur. 6.9 cubic feet of 
pure molybdenite equal one ton. 

This ore is used but little, chiefly in the 
preparation of a blue color, and is sometimes 
mistaken for graphite (blacklead), which it re- 
sembles, but from which it is easily distinguished, 
as graphite leaves a black mark on paper, while 
molybdenite has a greenish-black streak, which 
is best seen by drawing a piece across a china 
or other plate. Occurs in crystalline rocks, but 
sparingly; also with lead and copper ores. Con- 
tains 59 per cent, of molybdenum; and 41 per 
cent, of sulphur. 



Hexagonal. Usually foliated, also massive. 
Color, black to steel-gray. Streak, as a common 
lead pencil. Lustre, metallic. H.=i 2. G.= 
2.25 2.27. Soils the fingers, and feels greasy. 
Contains 95 to 99 per cent, of carbon. B.B. 
infusible. Not touched by acids. 13.9 cubic feet 
of pure graphite equal one ton. Largely used 
in the manufacture of pencils, crucibles, stove 
polish, and lubricants for heavy machinery. Also 
in electric lighting, plating, etc. 

Commonly called blacklead. Found chiefly 
in crystalline limestone, also in gneiss, and mica 
schist, and generally forms only a small percent- 
age of the ore, distributed evenly throughout the 


gangue in specks; or in masses of all sizes. A 
valuable mineral when pure. Such impurities 
as lime, and iron, destroy its value. Test for 
lime with hydrochloric acid. 

NATIVE. Hexagonal. Commonly massive. Color, 
and streak, tin-white. Brittle. H.=2 2.5. G. 
= 6.i 6.3. B.B. fuses, tinges the flame green, 
and volatilizes. 5.4 cubic feet equal one ton. 
Also obtained in combination with silver, and 
lead ores, which is the chief source of supply. 


Certain rare metals mentioned below, are 
quoted at high prices in price lists of chemicals, 
and people are led to believe that they exist as 
mines. Some are found native, but the cause 
of their being seldom used, and high-priced is 
in most cases the great expense attending their 
extraction, and reduction, to the metallic state, 
or their scarcity. Those usually mentioned are 
not of much interest, except to chemists. There 
is but a very limited market for any metal so 
priced, even if a quantity should be found. 
BARIUM exists in nature as baryta (or heavy spar) 
a sulphate, (described in part V.) MAGNESIUM 
is a very light, tough, white metal, never found 
native. PALLADIUM is a malleable, steel-gray 
metal, inclining to white, found native, with some 



platinum, and iridium, generally in small grains, 
in gold diggings, and occasionally native gold 
is alloyed with palladium. RHODIUM is found as 
an alloy with gold. IRIDOSMINE is a compound 
of IRIDIUM and OSMIUM, occurring usually in 
small flat grains. H.=6.y. G.=ig.5 21. Slightly 
malleable, and used for points to gold pens. 
SODIUM is the metallic base of common salt, 
(Chloride of Sodium). URANIUM is the metallic 
base of pitchblende; never found native. (See 
under Pitchblende.) 

There are many other metals known only to 
chemists, or rarely used, whether native or arti- 
ficially extracted. None are of interest to com- 
mercial mining. 



We have now, briefly described, the chief 
ores from which metals of commerce are extract- 
ed, and as such, of greatest interest to the general 


Is a metal of great promise, being only one- 
third as heavy as iron, of great tensile strength 
(26,000 Bounds against 16,500 pounds for cast 
iron, per inch) and hardness, a beautiful white 
color, with no taste or odor, not liable to tarnish 
or corrode, and taking a polish which is not ex- 
celled by any other metal, yet it is not of special 
interest to prospectors, being the base of clays, 
and therefore, the most abundant of all metals. 
Its price depends purely on the discovery of 
cheaper methods of extraction. A cubic foot 
weighs but 163 pounds, while iron weighs 487, 
and gold 1206 pounds per cubic foot. 

The most valuable source of aluminium, at 
present (and likely to remain the most valuable 
until new processes of extraction are developed) 
is an ore called: 

BAUXITE; This mineral is a soft granular, com- 
pact, iron-stained clay, and the color is white to 


brown or reddish, or sometimes bluish. G.= 
2.55. It is a hydrated sesqui-oxide of aluminium 
and iron, soluble in sulphuric acid. A find of 


Occurs of many colors, blue, red, etc. H.= 
g, or next the diamond. G.=3.g 4.1. An oxide 
of aluminium. 

When in clear blue crystals forms the gem 
called Sapphire. When crystals are red they 
are called Rubies. (See under Precious Stones.) 

Found chiefly in mica schist, and granular 

The variety having bluish-gray and blackish 
colors, is called EMERY. Used very extensively, 
as a polishing material in the shape of powder. 
Distinguished at once by its hardness. 

ALUM SHALE. The alum of commerce is obtain- 
ed from shale, or some rock containing alunogen 
or other alum bearing mineral, by heating the 
rock in lumps to produce aluminium sulphate. 
This is then lixiviated in stone cisterns, the lye 
concentrated by evaporation, and potassium added 
to the last solution. On cooling the alum crys- 
tallizes out. 


Monoclinic. Usually in thick prisms, and 
massive, granular, or fine grained. Not striated. 


Color, white or flesh-red, sometimes greenish- 
white. Translucent to opaque. B.B. fuses with 
difficulty. Not touched by acids. Moonstone 
and Sunstone are varieties. Contains 64.7 per 
cent, of silica; 18.4 per cent, of aluminium; and 
16.9 per cent, of potash. Largely used in the 
manufacture of chinaware. 

CRYOLITE. This is a peculiar, translucent, snow- 
white compound. H.=2.5. G.=2.g5 3. Con- 
tains 12.8 per cent, of aluminium; 32.8 per cent, 
of sodium; and 54.4 per cent, of fluorine. Used 
as a source of aluminium, and its salts; soda ; 
and an opaque white glass. Melts easily in the 
flame of a candle. 


This is a clay derived from the decomposition 
of feldspar, and used in the manufacture of fine 
chinaware. A good deposit of this clay, easily 
accessible, and free of grit or iron, is a find of 
value. Soapy to the touch. Insoluble in acids. 
It is one of the essentials in a good clay for 
any purpose, but is rarely met with in a pure 
condition fit for the above use. 

To try the quality of the clay, wet a little 
in a white dish and observe that in a good 
article, it does not turn darker. Also observe 
that it is not "gritty," but an analysis is needed 
to test it, and even that will not fully prove its 


value. B.B. will turn from white to brown if it 
contains iron. 

FIRE-CLAY. Pure, unctuous clay, with about 45 
to 60 per cent, of silica, and free, or almost free 
from soda, potash, or alkaline earth. Found 
generally, underlying coal seams. 

POTTERS CLAY. Must be plastic, and free from 
iron, and usually contains some free silica. 

MARL. Clay containing much carbonate of lime; 
from 40 to 50 per cent. Sometimes contains 
many shells, or fragments of shells. Used as a 

SHALE. Is an indurated compressed clay, and 
is often ground and extensively used for bricks, 
tile, etc. For vitrified bricks, a clay, or shale 
is required with a high fusion point, but capable 
of incipient fusion, to an extent which will close 
up the pores, so as to completely prevent the 
absorption of water, before the material abso- 
lutely melts. 


Color, white or creamy, sometimes bluish- 
green. Compact, of a fine earthy texture, with 
a smooth feel. H.=2 2.5. Floats on water. 
Contains 60.8 per cent, of silica; 27.1 per cent, 
of magnesia; and 12.1 per cent, of water. B.B. 
infusible, gives much water, and a pink color, with 


cobalt solution. Occurs in masses in stratified 
earth deposits. Used for pipe-bowls. 


Color, reddish (usually deep flesh-red), also 
brown, greenish, or yellowish, sometimes black 
on surface. Streak, uncolored. Lustre, stony; 
transparent to opaque. H.=5.5 6.5. G.=3-4 
3.7. Contains 45.9 per cent, of silica; and 54.1 
per cent, of manganese protoxide. B.B. becomes 
dark brown, and with borax, bead is deep violet 
when hot, and reddish brown when cold. Looks 
like feldspar, but is heavier. Used in making 
a violet colored glass, and a colored glaze on 
stoneware. Takes a high polish, and makes a 
handsome ornamental stone. 


Occurs commonly in crystals, or compact. 
In bright colors, resembles some gems, but is 
distinguished by its easy cleavage and softness. 
Colors are white, or light green, purple or clear 
yellow, also rarely rose-red or sky-blue. Trans- 
parent or translucent. H.=4. G. 3 3.25. 
Brittle. Consists of 48.7 per cent, of Fluorine; 
and 51.3 per cent, of calcium. B.B. decrepitates 
and fuses to an enamel. 

When massive receives a high polish, and 
is made into vases, candlesticks, etc., and sold 
under the name of DERBYSHIRE SPAR. Hydro- 


fluoric acid, with which glass is etched, is ob- 
tained from fluorspar; also used as a flux for 
copper and other ores, hence the name fluor. 



Hexagonal. Commonly in six-sided prisms. 
Color, green of various shades, sometimes yellow, 
blue, and reddish or brownish. Streak, always 
white. Generally occurs in crystals, but some- 
times massive. H.=5. G.=3 3.25. Brittle. 
Lustre, stony. 10 cubic feet weigh one ton. 
B.B. moistened with sulphuric acid tinges the 
flame bluish-green, without the acid, reddish- 
yellow. Occurs in pyroxene ; crystalline lime- 
stone ; hornblende gneiss; and mica schist. 

Used extensively as a fertilizer. Distinguish- 
ed from feldspar by trial of hardness. 


This is a hydrous sulphate of Lime. It is used 
on land, for agricultural purposes, and as a plaster 
for walls. H.=i.5 2. G.=2.33. B.B. becomes 
white at once and exfoliates, then fuses. When 
pure white it is called ALABASTER; when trans- 
parent SELENITE; when fibrous SATIN SPAR; when 
burned and ground it is PLASTER OF PARIS. Found 
in thick seams in limestone and clay beds. 


Crystalline limestone, or dolomite, susceptible 
of a fine polish, is marble. Colors are: white, 


pink, red, mottled, yellow, bronze, and black. 
Massive. Serpentine is sometimes called marble. 


Is a compact, fine grained limestone. If free 
from grit, and other impurities, makes a valuable 


An impure limestone, containing silica and 
alumina, which on being burned affords a cement 
which will set under water. Contains 15 to 25 
per cent, of clay. 



Color, white, and yellowish, or reddish. Trans- 
parent or translucent. Lustre, vitreous or pearly. 
H,=2.5 3.5. G.=4-3 4.7. B.B. fuses, and im- 
parts a green tinge to flame. After fusion with 
soda, stains silver coin black. When ground, is 
used to adulterate white lead. Found in veins, 
generally with lead, as part of the gangue. 7.1 
cubic feet weigh one ton. 


Trimetric. In rhombic crystals, with distinct 
cleavage. Color, clear white, tinged with blue, 
or reddish. Lustre, vitreous. Brittle. Nearly 
transparent. H.=3 3.5. G.=3.g 4. B. B. 
decrepitates, tinging flame bright red, and fuses. 


With soda blackens silver coin. Contains 56.4 
per cent, of strontia which is used to obtain the 
red color in fireworks. Found in sandstone and 
limestone rocks. Is sometimes fibrous. 



Colorless, or colored (by accidental impurities, 
such as iron,) red, brown, pale blue, yellow, or 
green. Streak, white. H.=2 2.5. G.=2 2.25. 
Tastes strongly saline. Contains 39.30 per cent, 
of sodium; and 60.66 per cent, of chlorine, but 
most samples contain clay, and a little lime and 
magnesia. B.B. flies to pieces, and melts into 
a bead which colors the flame yellow. It is 
obtained by sinking wells, from which the brine 
is pumped and evaporated in large pans, or by 
mining, the same as for any other ore. 



This mineral is a phosphate containing cerium, 
lanthanum, yttrium, didymium and THORIUM, 
which latter is now used in making an improved 
gaslight. Color, brown to brownish-red. Sub- 
transparent to nearly opaque. Lustre, vitreous 
to resinous. Brittle. H.=5. G. 4.8 5.1. Occurs 
in crystals. It is mined, the same as placer 
gold, from sand or gravel beds. B.B. colors the 
flame green when moistened with sulphuric acid. 




Trimetric. Foliated or massive. Color, light 
green or shining white. Sometimes dark green. 
H.=i.i5. G.=2.5 2.8. A silicate of magnesia. 
It is easily cut. The greenish colored massive 
variety of talc. 

POTSTONE: is impure soapstone of dark color 
and slaty structure. FRENCH CHALK is a milk- 
white kind. Soft and greasy to the touch. B.B. 

FOLIATED TALC. Pure foliated talc of white, or 
greenish-white color. 

Soapstone is cut with a saw, and turned in 
a lathe, without difficulty. Used for gas-jets, and 
for various purposes. Takes a fine polish after 
being heated. Also used to adulterate soap ; 
as a face powder ; and as a filling for paper. 



Occurs generally as a massive rock, but occa- 
sionally in fibrous form, as : 

ASBESTOS. Color, green or white. Fibrous. A 
hydrous silicate of magnesia. May be spun into 
fine threads, by separating the fibres into a silky 
mass, and then twisting it, with the fingers. 
Used to cover steam-pipes, etc., in the form of 
rough cloth, and for many purposes requiring 


an incombustible material. Occurs in seams from 
half an inch to several inches in width, running 
parallel, or crossing one another, the width of 
each seam making the length of the fibre. 

ACTING-LITE. The long-bladed greenish variety. 
Used for fireproof material, chiefly roofing, with 
tar, or asphalt. 



Monoclinic. In crystals, splitting easily into 
sheets, or in scales. Color, white, green, brown 
to black. Transparent, tough and elastic. H.=: 
2 2.5. G.=2.7. 3. This mineral is extensively 
used in sheets, and ground. In sheets it is used 
for stoves, standing a great heat ; and for insu- 
lating purposes in electrical plants. Ground ; it 
is used as a lubricant, and in making ornament- 
al and fire-proof paint. The pure white in large 
sheets (3x3 and upward) is most valuable, but 
the amber is as good value for electrical pur- 
poses. When spotted it is of little or no value. 
B.B. whitens, but does not fuse except on thin 
edges. Light colored micas are mostly Musco- 
vite ; black, Biotite. 


Color, rose-red, and lilac to white. In small 
plates, and aggregations of scales. Contains 2 
to 5 per cent, of the metal Lithium. 


LITHIUM. Is a soft, whitish, metal, of very light 
specific gravity, and considerable tenacity. It 
is very fusible. Used in an alloy with tin, and 
lead, as a solder. Lithia is also found as a 
phosphate, in : 

TRIPHYLITE. A mineral having H.=5. G.= 
3.50. Streak, grayish-white, and lustre, sub- 
resinous. B.B. any mineral containing lithia 
colors the flame a beautiful deep crimson. 


This acid is found as the mineralizing agent 
of many metallic ores, and is chiefly obtained 
for commercial purposes from : 

NATIVE SULPHUR. Color and streak, sulphur- 
yellow, or sometimes orange-yellow. Lustre, res- 
inous. Transparent to translucent. Brittle. H.= 
1.5 to 2.5. G.=2.O7. Burns with a blue flame 
and sulphurous odor. Pure sulphur, or contami- 
nated with clay, or pitch. Found in beds of 
gypsum, or the vicinity of volcanoes, active or 
extinct. Purified, it is the sulphur of commerce, 
which is also obtained largely from copper and 
iron pyrites, from which ores 
SULPHURIC ACID. is also manufactured (the non- 
magnetic ores being preferred for this purpose), 
making veins of these ores valuable. It is known 
as Oil of Vitriol. The uses of sulphur for gun- 
powder, blacking, and medicine are well known. 



frequently found com- 
the valuable mineral 
lead, etc., and is very 

B. may be detected by 

sulphuric acid, when 

It is a white, waxy 

and very poisonous. 

g matches, and various 

This is also an acid, 
bined with lime, forming 
APATITE; also with copper, 
injurious in iron ores. B. 
moistening the assay with 
the flame is tinged green, 
substance, when refined, 
Used in the arts; for makin 
other purposes. 


This is a common acid in connection with 
ores of economic value, and occurs: 
NATIVE. with silver, and lead ores. Color, and 
streak, tin-white, usually tarnished gray. Brittle- 
H. = 3.5. G.=5-65 5.95. B.B. volatilizes be- 
fore fusing, with the odor of garlic, and burns with 
pale blue flame. Also occurs combined with sul- 
phur, as: 

REALGAR. of red color. H. = i.5 2. G. 3.4 
3.6 containing 29.9% of sulphur. 
ORPIMENT. Bright golden-yellow. H. = i.5 2. 
G.=3.4 3.5. having 39% of sulphur. 

Obtained chiefly from mispickel, (Arsenopy- 
rite) for commercial purposes. Very poisonous. 

It is an unwelcome ingredient in many gold, 
silver, and other ores, making their treatment 
very difficult, and often unprofitable. 

86 JET. 



Color, black with high lustre. Opaque. Brittle 
and sectile. H.=o.5 2.5. G.=i.2 1.80. Car- 
bon, with some oxygen, and hydrogen, and often 
more or less clay or slate. The seams run from 
an inch to forty feet in thickness. Believed to 
be of vegetable origin. Never found commercially 
in crystalline rocks, but is mostly confined to 
the upper rocks, known as Carboniferous. 


Color, black. G.=not more than 1.5. Softer 
than anthracite. Used to make coke and gas, 
and varies much in the amount of tar, gas, or 
oil it yields. 


Color, brownish-black. Like bituminous coal 
in appearance but, contains 15 to 20 per cent, of 
oxygen. Sometimes shows the structure of the 
wood from which it was formed. It will not 
make coke. 

JET. is a variety of coal, but is hard, of a dead 
black color, taking a fine polish, and much used 
in jewelry. 

Large quantities of different colored dyes are 
obtained from coal. It is said, that dye from one 
pound of coal will color 5,000 yards of cotton cloth. 



Gas can be found only in stratified rocks, 
generally in what is called Trenton Limestone, 
and the gas rock must be covered by considerable 
thickness of a close impermeable capping, of some 
other rock, or clay, or no body of gas of any 
extent will be met with, while however abund- 
ant, the supply is but temporary and will event- 
ually be exhausted in each locality. No surface 
indications are found, except small gasflows which 
indicate that the gas, escaping as formed, does 
not exist in the locality in commercial quantity. 



The crude oil is found like natural gas; only 
in the higher rocks. It cannot be found in meta- 
morphic rocks or any crystalline formation. The 
common coal oil of commerce, is the volatile pro- 
duct of the distillation of Petroleum, the lubricat- 
ing oils, are the heavy oils left behind, and after- 
wards more or less purified, and perhaps 10% 
(or i Ib. to the gallon) of Paraffin wax, is the 
residue of value. This wax is the 
OZOKERITE of commerce ; originally found in 
a natural state. 

ASPHALT. is mineral Pitch, used for roofing and 
street paving. Color, black to blackish-brown. 
H.=(when solid) i 2. G.=i 2. melts at 90 F. 
and is very inflammable. 



This substance is not a mineral, but simply 
vegetable matter in a state of decomposition. 

Color brown to black. Spongy. G.=o.5 i. 
When dried contains 15% to 25% of water. It 
is found in beds, or in bogs. It forms a valuable 
fuel when dried and strongly compressed, fit for 
locomotives, or to smelt iron ores. 


MINERAL WOOL so called is not a natural, but 
an artificial product. It is made by converting 
scoria and certain slags, while in a melted 
condition into a fibrous state, and is really glass in 
its nature, but fibrous, soft and inelastic. Used 
as a preventive of fire and frost, and to deaden 
sound; in buildings. 


The oxides are used in painting porcelain, 
giving a fine orange color in the enameling fire, 
and a black color when baked. The chief ore is: 


Color, grayish to brownish or velvet-black. 
Lustre, submetallic or dull. Streak, black. Opa- 
que. H.=5.5. G.=6.47. Contains 75 to 87 per 
cent, of uranium oxides, with silica, lead, iron, and 
other impurities. B.B. infusible alone. Dis- 
solves slowly in nitric acid when powdered. 


8 9 


Natural paints, are those minerals which when 

powdered and mixed with oil, will adhere to a 

smooth surface, and in drying form an imperme- 
able skin, or covering. 

RED iRon paint; is powdered hematite iron ore 
mixed with oil. 

YELLOW IRON paint; is made from the brown 
iron ore. 

BLACK IRON paint; is made from magnetite. 

UMBER; by mixing the iron paints, with powder- 
ed oxide of manganese. 

RED COPPER paint; is powdered red oxide of 

GREEN COPPER paint; is powdered silicate of 

ZINC WHITE; is oxide of zinc, artificially made, 
by large costly plants. 

WHITE LEAD; is carbonate of lead, also artificial- 
ly prepared, the natural ores not being 
pure enough. This also is a costly process. 

RED LEAD; is oxide of lead, and has to be care- 
fully made by experts. 

VERMILLION ; is the natural ore of mercury. 

SLATE colored paints, are made from powdered, 
fine-grained slates, ground in oil. 

GRAPHITE makes a fine shiny, fireproof paint. 


THE OCHRES ; are fine clays, with brown or 
red iron in them, which have been naturally 
washed, and ground, and sifted, to an extent 
that cannot be profitably imitated by art. 


INFUSORIAL EARTH. This polishing earth is 
formed from very minute siliceous shells, and 
besides its use for polishing metals, is mixed 
with nitro-glycerine to make Dynamite, the pow- 
erful explosive used extensively in all heavy rock 


MINERAL RESIN. Is yellow in color to whitish. 
Lustre, resinous. Transparent to trans- 
lucent. H.=2 2.5. G.=i.i8. Be- 
comes electric when rubbed. Is 
a resin, but mainly one that resists 
all solvents called Succinite. It is 
supposed to be a vegetable resin, 
which has been altered by sulphur 
while imbedded. Generally found 
along sea-coasts, in masses from 
pea size to as large as a man's 
head. It is used to make 
ornamental necklaces of beads, 
mouthpieces for 


_ - 


-\ * . \^^^=.^^ pipes, cigar hol- 


Stones of the most valuable kinds EMERALDS, 
haps DIAMONDS, will yet be found in many sec- 
tions in America, where they have not hitherto 
been discovered, or their existence even suspected. 
The fact is, that very few prospectors know any- 
thing at all about precious stones or crystals, and 
in most cases are not aware that Crystals or 
handsome specimens of minerals, have a value 
entirely apart from that due them as the source 
of the metals. 

Very few people have any idea of the beauty 
brought out, by polishing even very common stones 
or pebbles. 

In an idle hour on the bank of stream or lake, 
amuse yourself by trying the hardness, of any 
clear pebbles, or crystals you may find there. 
When you come across one that is not scratched 
by the corundum in your case, which represents 
number nine in the scale of hardness, or one which 
being scratched by number nine, will also scratch 
it in turn, put it in your pocket, and send it by 
mail to a Lapidary or dealer in mineral specimens. 

This costs almost nothing and you may one 
day, be surprised by the result, and find your- 
self well paid for your trouble. Again, when you 


run across a handsome cluster of Quartz, or 
other Crystals, do likewise. Gems are discovered 
by carefully examining the various stones found in 
panning, or washing gold gravel. 

Sometimes the expenses of a long trip, may be 
recovered by the collecting of a few good crystals 
or unusual specimens of minerals, not of commer- 
cial value other than as Cabinet Specimens. 
Precious stones are sold at so much a carat, 
which is a conventional weight, divided into 
four grains, which are a little lighter than Troy 
grains. The term is derived from a dried bean 
used as a weight in Africa, for weighing gold. 

An approximate idea of the size of the various 
gems, may be had by reference to their varying 
specific gravity in comparison with this table of 
the approximate size of Diamonds, which is as 
follows, a stone weighing 

^-y of a carat is about -^ inch in diameter 

I a n 3 a u 

Ttf S2 

1 " " * " 

" " " " 

i n n i a u 

<? it it 6 n 


Diamonds are worth from $30 to $150 per carat. 
Emeralds " " " $10 " $75 " 
Rubies ^ " " $8 " $90 


Precious stones when polished are worth from 

IOC. tO $IO.OO. 

They occur in the drift where the country 
rocks are eruptive. Transparency and hardness 
tell their value. 


Isometric. Faces of crystals often curved. 
Color, pure, colorless, or white (the most valu- 
able) also yellow, orange, green, blue, brown and 
black. Lustre, adamantine. Transparent, unless 
dark colored. H.=io. G.=3-5 Pure Carbon. 
The hardest substance known. 

The Diamond does not sparkle in the rough, 
as found, or until polished. The best test is the 
hardness, and its becoming electric, when rubbed 
before polishing, this stone always showing posi- 
tive electricity. Other gems are negative unless 
polished. B.B. burns. 

Look for dull grayish white pebbles, having 
a worn octohedral form pointed at opposite ends. 
Generally found in gravel diggings, but the 
Diamond bearing rock, in Brazil appears to be, 
a species of mica schist filled with quartz in 
grains, called Itacolumyte, while at the Kim- 
berly mines, in South Africa, it is a magnesian 
conglomerate with silica as a base. The matrix; 
known to the miners as the "blue," consists for 
the first 100 feet of soft friable yellow shale, al- 


tered from a slate-blue colored crystalline rock, 
which pulverizes on exposure to the air. The 
encasing rocks of the "chimney" are first a red- 
dish sand from 2 inches to 2 feet, then a few 
feet of calcareous Tufa, of recent date and still 
forming. Then a yellow to pinkish shale for 35 to 
50 feet, succeeded by a black carbonaceous shale 
which extends to 260 285 feet from the surface 
when it gives way, to an un stratified basalt trap 
depth unknown which encircles the whole mine 
or mines. It is an amygdaloidal Dolerite with 
much agate. The "blue" contains many thin 
veins of calcspar, and mica, pyrite, and hornblende 
occur throughout, The total area is eleven acres. 
The "blue" is allowed to lie in the open air 
until pulverulent, when it is carefully washed and 
the stones picked out. The less valuable are used 
as drills, and in powder as polishing material. 
The Diamond is cut by abrasion with its own 
powder. A cutter has succeeded lately in cut- 
ing a finger ring out of one perfect stone, f of an 
inch in diameter. 


Rhombohedral. Usually in six-sided prisms 
but very irregular. Blue is the true color, 
but the stone occurs ; red ; yellow ; green violet 
and hairbrown. Transparent or translucent. 
H.=g or next the Diamond. G.=4 4.16. B.B. 
remains unaltered. Pure Alumina. Dark colors 


are called EMERY, (which occurs, granular in 
appearance,) and is used as a polishing powder. 

Test for hardness. It scratches quartz very 
easily. Commonly found in gravel washings, and 
in mica schist, and gneiss, with crystalline lime- 
stone, as the usual matrix. 

A very valuable gem, the red colored being 
most highly prized. One specimen weighs 18^ 
pounds Troy, and is transparent, without a flaw. 


In opaque masses, without cleavage. Color, 
bluish-green. Lustre, waxy. H.=6. G.=2.6 
2.8. B.B. becomes brown, and tinges the flame 
green, but does not fuse. Soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid, and moistened with the acid tinges 
the flame green for a moment, owing to the 
copper present. Is highly valued, but closely 
imitated by art, though the artificial gems are 
much softer. Occurs in veins. 


Color, green, sometimes bluish or yellowish. 
Streak, uncolored. Transparent, or translucent. 
Brittle. H.=y.^ 8. 0.^2.7. The rich green 
is the true emerald. The bluish-green are called 
AQUAMARINE. Colored by chromium when pure 
green. Not touched by acids. B.B. infusible, 
but becomes clouded. One specimen weighs 


nearly seventeen pounds. Occurs in granite, and 
gneiss, but the finest crystals are found in dolo- 


Trimetric. In rhombic prisms, with perfect 
cleavage. Color, pale yellow, white, reddish 
or greenish blue. Transparent to translucent. 
H.=8. G.=3-5. Consists of alumina and silica. 
B.B. infusible. Not affected by acids. Found 
both in loose crystals or pebbles, and in veins 
in metamorphic rocks. 

When used in jewelry the color is often altered 
by heat. Becomes electric on heating. The 
quartz crystals are known as False Topaz. (See 
also under Quartz.) 


PRECIOUS OPAL. Compact or earthy. Opaque 
white or bluish-white, with beautiful play of 
colors. H.=about 6. G=about 2 . FIRE 
OPAL; has yellow, and bright fire-red reflections. 
Easily scratched by quartz. B.B. infusible. 
Composition like quartz, but usuall} 7 contains two 
to ten per cent, of water. Some stones are good 
natural barometers, becoming clouded on the 
approach of stormy weather, and clearing, and 
showing brighter reflections, as the weather be- 
comes settled. 




Isometric. Also occurs massive, or granular. 
Color, deep red to cinnamon, also brown, black, 
green, and white. Transparent to opaque. Lustre, 
vitreous. H.=6.5 7.5. G.=3.i 4.3. B. B. 
fuses easily. When transparent, precious; if 
opaque, common. Of frequent occurence in mica 
schist and gneiss, but fine clear crystals are not 
common, and are highly valued. There are many 
varieties. Its crystalline form and fusibility dis- 
tinguish it. 


Dimetric. Usually in crystals, but also granu- 
lar. Color, red to brown or gray, yellow, and 
white. Streak, uncolored. Lustre, adamantine. 
H.=7.5. G-^=4 4.8, Transparent red speci- 
mens are called HYACINTH, Sometimes heated 
in a crucible, with lime, when it loses its color, 
and is then sold as diamond. Occurs in granite, 
gneiss, and some other igneous rocks. Dis- 
tinguished by its square prismatic form, and 
great specific gravity. 


Quartz is rhombohedral in crystallization, 
occurring usually in six-sided prisms more or 
less modified, also compact or granular. 

Crystals are colorless or yellow, amethystine, 
rose, smoky, and other tints. Transparent to 


opaque, and sometimes the colors are banded 
red, green, blue, and brown to black. H.=7. 
G.=2.5 to 2.8. Contains nominally; 53.33 per 
cent, of oxygen; and 46.67 per cent, of silicon, 
but often contains iron, clay, and other minerals. 
B.B. infusible alone, but fusible with soda. The 
following are all varieties of quartz. 
ROCK CRYSTAL. Pure pellucid quartz. The 

"whitestone" of jewellers, often used for 

spectacles and optical instruments. 
AMETHYST. Purple, or bluish violet ; of great 

ROSE QUARTZ. Pink or rose-colored. Seldom 

in crystals. 
FALSE TOPAZ. Light yellow, clear crystals. Often 

cut and sold for Topaz. 

CAIRNGORM STONE. Simply smoky Quartz. 
PRASE. Leek green, massive quartz. 
AVENTURINE. Common quartz, spangled with 

yellow mica. 
CHALCEDONY. Translucent, massive,- with waxy 


CHRYSOPRASE. Apple-green chalcedony. 
CARNELIAN. Bright red chalcedony, of rich tint. 

Much used for seals. 
SARD. Deep brownish-red chalcedony, blood-red 

by transmitted light. 
AGATE. Variegated chalcedony. Beautiful when 




Moss AGATE. Contains moss-like delineations, 
caused by iron oxide. 

ONYX. Agate having the colors in flat horizon- 
tal layers. Usually light brown and opaque 
white. It is the material used for Cameos. 

CAT'S EYE. Greenish-gray, translucent chalce- 
dony, with a peculiar opalescence when 
polished with spheroidal surface, owing 
to inclusions of asbestos. 

BLOODSTONE; or HELIOTROPE. Deep green, with 
spots of red. A variety of Jasper. 

SILICIFIED WOOD. Petrified wood, quartz having 
replaced the wood. 

FLECHES D'AMOUR. (Love's Arrows). Quartz 
with rutile (or oxide of titanium) penetrating 
in every direction like fine hairs. 


This cut shows a vein with pay-streak which has been thrown 
to one side, in such a manner that if worked by a slope it would be 
lost altogether. A study of the formation will enable the miner to 
decide in which direction to go, without any lost labor. 



REJECTING That there are more valuable de- 
SAMPLES. posits of mineral passed over un- 
recognized, in each and every season, than, are 
discovered, I believe to be a fact, at least as 
regards new mining territory. To old mining 
districts, where the geology, and mineralogy, have 
been thoroughly worked out, and where the com- 
munity in general, is familiar with the only ores 
existing in the territory, this of course does not 
apply. The very first requisite to success in 
prospecting, is to become familiar with all tlie 
various ores and rocks by sight. Study each ore 
until you can recognize it at once. 

A GOOD The average prospector is familiar 
RTTLE. with at most, the ores of but two or 
three metals, and will often pass by, the very 
thing which would yield the best return. This 
comes from going to work on a wrong principle. 
A prospector should never reject samples of 
veins, simply because he does not recognize the 
ore, as valuable. On the contrary, he should 
procure samples of every lode, or deposit, which 
he does not know positively, to be of no value, 
and submit them to a competent mineralogist 
for examination. This will at any rate serve 



one good purpose the prospector will learn what 
the substance is, and thus add to his knowledge. 

HOW TO ^ n selecting samples for assay, break 
SAMPLE, small pieces from as many different 
parts of the deposit as possible. One sample 
however large, is of little value, as it will almost 
invariably be either too rich or too poor, and 
will therefore be misleading. Collect three to 
five pounds of iron, galena, gold, or silver ore, 
and all quartz or vein matter, thus giving the 
assayer some chance to properly sample, and 
always retain a portion. 

COLLECTING ^ n taking samples, paint a number 
SAMPLES. on each and every sample on the 
spot, and at the time, and enter exact particulars 
of each in the blank columns ruled for the 
purpose, at the end of this volume; where sample 
was got, part of vein taken from, depth, date, 
with other items thought of, so that if necessary, 
an affidavit may be made regarding any given 
sample, at any time in the future; and keep 
duplicate samples, which in time make a collec- 
tion of value. 



When sending samples for assay to 
a chemist, many people expect an 
opinion of the ore, or some further information. 
As a rule no chemist will do more, than simply 
test for the metal or other ingredient, asked for 


by the sender. The chemist has no knowledge 
of the purpose for which the information, or 
analysis, is wanted, and is seldom competent to 
give an opinion, as to the value of the property 
as a mine. That is not his business, and even 
when a competent business man, and miner- 
he will not commit himself; as he is simply paid 
as a chemist for the assays made, and not for 
an opinion as an expert metallurgist or miner. 

Every mining expert must have a knowledge 
of assaying no chemist need have any knowledge 
of mining. 

OBJECT IN The owner, or anyone, interested 
ASSAYING, in a mine requires, not only to know 
the amount of metal in the ore, but more espe- 
cially the amount necessary to make the mine 
pay that is the vital point and that depends 
on the amount of metal which can be taken out 
of the ore, when treated on a commercial scale; 
on the cost of mining, and of treatment (which 
varies in almost every case); the cost of ship- 
ment ; and many other things. A working test 
of a few tons of ore, taken as mined, should 
follow the assays, which in their proper place 
are valuable in proportion to the skill of the 

WHERE TO 1 choosing a route for a prospect- 

PROSPECT. ing trip, be guided to a considerable 

extent by the strike of the country rock. Follow 


I0 3 

along a granite ridge; if such runs through the 
country; in a zig-zag fashion, continually crossing 
and re-crossing any contact of two formations. 
Linger to carefully search along either side of 
any fault, or disturbance, especially if caused 
by an eruptive dyke, and notice any sudden 
change in the strike of the rock, or appearance 
of the timber. Try all the streams and gravel 
bars for gold, stream tin, etc., not forgetting that 
dry placers (or old river beds) contain as much 

This section shows an old river bed covered by a trap overflow, 
which forced the river to take a new course, along the line of a "fault." 
A A Earth. E New Channel. O O covered gold-bearing gravel. 
.V .V The formation. F Fault. 5 5 Trap overflow. 

metal as the present streams, and that old gravel 
beds, are sometimes covered by a thick capping 
of rock, caused by an overflow of trap or lavaJ 
and if found, follow up the course until you 
reach the source of the gravel, and the veins. 



Use the pan at every opportunity, and study 
all material obtained by washing, carefully saving 
any unknown substance. 

Many ores are found, such as lead veins, or 
nickeliferous pyrrhotite, by observing a peculiar 
red stain throughout the earth or drift, and ore 
is often got, where no exposure or other indica- 
tion exists, save stains, and discolorations on 
the bare rock, or other slight results of oxida- 
tion. Lead veins, sometimes cause a series of 
hollows, or ''sinks," running in a straight line. 

The above section shows a common occurrence of Galena Veins, 
oo Surface Clay. NN Limestone. M main bodies of ore. c a 
Pocket, s the Lode. 


After coming across a vein, first fol- 
low the outcrop, on the strike, as far 
as possible, and where it can be traced for a 
distance, spend some time in choosing the most 


I0 5 

favorable places for opening; where the out- 
cropping appears widest, and the ore most 
abundant. Begin by making shallow cuts across 
the vein, at these places, and after selecting the 
points which look the most likely, and where 
the vein seems to carry the greatest quantity 
of metal, sink small shafts to the depth of about 
eight or ten feet. Then have assays made; and 
if satisfactory, continue the shafts until a suffi- 
cient depth is reached to admit of cross-cutting. 
This being done; and the results being favorable, 
and further sinking and stripping showing ore 
to exist in quantity; the property will be ready 
for examination as a prospect, by experts on 
behalf of capitalists; or on behalf of the owners; 
to obtain an authoritative report, to place the pro- 
perty on the market in good form ; or lay out 
the mine, to the best advantage. 

Do not consider the money spent in preparing 
the prospect for the market, as an expense to 
be avoided. It is necessary to show capital 
the best possible evidence of value, as an in- 
ducement to inspect the goods offered, and then 
the sale will depend on the property being shown 
to advantage, by developing as much ore as 
possible, stripping the vein on the surface, etc., 
in strict conformity with the report and plans 
shown to the investor, and on which the expense 
of the examination was undertaken. 




SCALE: 400 feet=i inch. 

This cut shows a successful Silver Mine, and also how a mine 
should be laid out. o Trap. D Slates, c Earth. 

PROSPECTING I n sinking prospect shafts, or in 
WORK. doing any other work of a pros- 

pecting character, do not put any money into 
plant, machinery, or buildings, until absolutely 
necessary. Do the work as long as possible by 
hand labor. Ordinarily a shaft may be put 
down the first forty or fifty feet, with the aid 
of a common windlass, (which should be pro- 
vided with a good brake) and the second fifty 
feet a horse-whim, will do all the hoisting, unless 
the shaft be very wet in which case a light 
steam hoist, with pump attached ; is the most 
economical. Steam or air drills should not be 
purchased, until the mine is a proved producer, 
unless deep working and extensive exploring 
underground is for other reasons decided upon. 



The main essential to success in prospecting, 
even more than in other lines of business, is 
steady perseverance, backed by common sense. 
Nevertheless success does not often come, without 
a close study of how rocks are formed, how the 
ores were deposited, and how they came in the 
positions we now find them. It has occasionally 
happened, and doubtless will occasionally happen, 
that a man born under a lucky star, will by 
sheer good fortune, stumble on a rich mine, 
while it may be considered certain, that the 
same steady application, as would be shown in 
any other calling, will ensure much larger rewards 
when devoted to mining ; and this applies equally 
to those, who, engaged in different business, have 
opportunities to secure interests in discoveries 
made by others ; nevertheless, it should always 
be remembered, that one find in several only, 
is valuable, and one or two disappointments 
need not discourage further attempts. Economy 
should be the watchword in all prospecting work, 
but there is no economy in working with poor 
tools, or men, no matter how cheaply they may 
be bought. This applies, perhaps with greater 
force, to the development of new enterprises. 
More experience, more general knowledge, sound 
judgment and foresight, are requisite before the 
conditions and difficulties to be overcome, are 
fully known, than afterwards; when good man- 



agement alone is needed. It is very easy to 
make errors in laying out a mine, which it often 
costs large sums to rectify. 


MORAL: Use a Core Drill. 


A good pocket lens, - $ 2.00 
A dipneedle, 10.00 

A good compass, (one showing dip is the best) 2.50 

A set of fin. steel, one of 12 in., two of 
18 in. and one of 36 in., 

A 6 Ib. striking hammer, 

A good light shovel and pick, 

A light axe, - 

A small prospecting pick, with handle di- 
vided into inches and half inches, 

A miner's pan, of wood or iron, 

A few pounds of dynamite, (Eclipse) with 
fuse, etc., 

A jack-knife, with one blade magnetized, 






A case of small samples of ores for com- 
parison, - - 10.00 
A scale for trying hardness, - 2.00 
A vial of mercury, and small steel pestle 

and mortar, - 4.00 

A tubeof vermillion, for numbering samples, 

and brush, .50 

A small bottle of nitric, and one of hydro- 
chloric acid, - i.oo 
A number of small cotton or other bags to 
carry samples of crystals, etc., in, to 
keep them from abrasion, .25 
And last, but not least, a simple blowpipe 

outfit, 5.00 

Archibald Geikie says: "A knowledge of 
rocks can never be gained from instructions given 
in books, but must be acquired from actual hand- 
ling of the rocks themselves." 

PROSPECTORS' ! would advise every prospector 
SAMPLES. to buy from a dealer in mineral 

samples, a set of the minerals comprising the 
scale of hardness, also a prospector's case of 
samples of ores for comparison, most of which 
may be very small pieces. Nothing else can 
take the place of a known sample of the mineral, 
which can also be compared with samples of the 
vein on the spot, while the cost of a representa- 
tive case of ores, is but trifling, being from ten 
to fifteen dollars for case of about one hundred 


specimens, covering both ores and rocks pretty 
fully, and this should be made the nucleus of 
a private collection, which in time may be valu- 
able, if the record of each specimen be faithfully 

MEANS OF Every mile between a railway, or 
ACCESS. point accessible to large vessels, and 
a discovery of mineral means a reduction in 
the value of the property, and an added difficulty 
in finding a purchaser, and effecting a sale. 
This is too frequently lost sight of in selecting 
a field. It costs from $5,000 to $10,000 per 
mile in the average mining country, to build a 
railroad, therefore, unless there be strong reasons 
to the contrary, try and make your "search" 
or venture, as near one means of access or the 
other as possible, and you will save much vexa- 
tious delay, and disappointment, while the chances 
of success will not be lessened. 

SELLING A Mining properties are usually sold 
PROSPECT, outright, or leased on royalty. In 
the former case it is usual to give an option at a 
fixed price, for a certain definite period, during 
which time the purchaser is allowed to make 
the fullest investigation, and if on a prospect, 
to develop the property at his own expense, and 
to remove such an amount of ore as to allow 
a thorough test to be made. In the case of a 
lease, the lessor agrees to mine a minimum 


imount of ore during each year, and to pay a 
certain sum, or royalty, for each ton mined. An 
option to purchase for a fixed sum, is sometimes 
made a condition in the lease. Occasionally an 
owner will arrange to allow a plant to be erected 
and the mine worked, under proper conditions, 
on receiving a fixed percentage of the gross 

HOW TO 1 describing a find to possible pur- 
DESCRIBE. chasers, be careful to have any 
margin between the description and the facts, in 
favor of the property; never say the show is 
"about half an acre wide," or "a rifle shot 
long." It depends on who loads the rifle. It 
is just as easy to measure the outcrop, if only 
by pacing it, and to describe it as so many 
feet, or so many paces. The description should 
state : the title ; the kind of country ; the supply 
of timber and water ; the geology, as well as 
possible ; the trail, and means of approach ; and 
the surface show ; giving the dip ; and strike ; 
the facilities for working; and sites for buildings; 
the assays; and should be accompanied by average 
samples. Where possible the amount of ore "in 
sight" should be stated. The term "in sight" 
being used when an ore body is developed, by 
shafts, undercuttings, etc., to allow of measure- 
ment. Never cause a customer disappointment 
by describing a prospect as a mine. 


SECURING I n these days of concentration, when 
CAPITAL. all mines are carried on, with the 
use of expensive machinery, and costly plant, 
on a large scale, necessitating the employment 
of large capital, a connection with some one in 
touch with monied men, is absolutely necessary, 
to enable a prospector or owner of a prospect, 
to realize on the property. 

There is only one way to obtain such a con- 
nection, and be assured of fair treatment, that 
is: by convincing the capitalist, or his represent- 
ative, that the vendor is a man of his word, and 
not in the habit of exaggerating or misstating 
plain facts, that when he say a foot, he means 
twelve inches, and not six inches. The aim of 
a prospector or vendor of a prospect, should be 
to place it before buyers in the best possible 
shape to induce investigation. An authoritative 
report by a well known unbiassed outsider, is 
the quickest way to reach this end. 

CORE Sometimes, in exploiting a vein, or 
DRILLS, other deposit of mineral, the Core 
Drill offers certain advantages over shafts, or 
tunnels, and drifts. 

In exploring small, or irregular veins the 
work of the Core Drill is not reliable. When 
the conditions allow it fair play, it is the most 
economical method of testing an ore body, saving 
time, and expense in underground work, and 


boring smooth, straight holes, in any direction, 
from vertical to horizontal. Drills are made of 
varying capacity, being driven by hand, steam, 
or horse power, and drilling from 500 to 4,000 
feet in depth. 

This Drill consists of, 
a hollow circular bit, 
set both on inside and 
outside edge, with in- 
ferior diamonds, which 
do the cutting, as the 
drill revolves. A con- 
tinuous core remains in 
the tube, which is broken off and drawn up, a 
section at a time ; thus giving an actual sample 
of the strata passed through, at any and every 

A new core drill is being successfully used 
in California, which does not require diamonds. 
It consists of different lengths of iron pipe (like 
gas pipe) screwed together, and revolved at great 
speed under pressure, small chilled steel shot 
being fed into the hole at the top. These become 
imbedded in the soft iron of the pipe, forming 
a rough rasp, which wears the hardest rock. It 
will bore either a perpendicular hole, or one on 
the incline, following the dip of the ore and is 
said to be a very economical prospecting tool. 
The safest, and generally speaking, the most 


satisfactory way, is to contract with an ex- 
perienced . driller, for the work required, at a 
certain price per foot. 



I n many cases, when capital is not 
conveniently obtained, and where it 
is necessary that a property be developed, be- 
fore being offered for sale ; it is a matter of 
moment to sell any ore which may be mined, in 
the course of such development. It sometimes 
happens that sufficient ore can be obtained, to 
pay for the necessary expense incurred. This 
is a matter requiring considerable judgment and 
discretion, to decide, before entering on the work, 


depending on a return from the ore. Ore can 
be sold by the single carload, or by the ton, 
but at the minimum price. A hint as to the 
data required, by purchasers of ore, may not be 
out of place. Ores, and mattes, are usually sold 
at a price per unit, a minimum percentage of 
metal being usually fixed, below which grading 
the ore must not run. Send samples which will 
fairly represent the ore pile, taking care that the 
average will not be too high, and a complete 
analysis of the ore. State as nearly as possible, 
how much ore you will be able to ship, confining 
the amount to what you have available at the 
time, and a purchaser may be found, who will 
advance a part of the value on the bills of lading 
(often a consideration to the shipper) for gold, 
silver, copper, lead and some other ores. 

After sufficient work has been done, 
to absolutely prove that a paying 
deposit exists, and not till then, should mining 
begin. The exploration should expose sufficient 
ore, to pay for all plant and development work, 
and a profit, which usually means a couple of 
years supply, for the necessary reduction works. 
Further development should be pushed so as to 
keep this reserve, constantly ahead. The ore 
should be thoroughly tested, to guarantee the 
above value, by working tests, at the nearest 
refining works, before deciding on a process of 



treatment. A mining enterprise conducted in 
this way, involves no further risk, than the loss 
of the expenses of preliminary investigation, pro- 
vided it receives the same careful management, 
and honest supervision, as all business ventures 

SELECTING THE Selecting the wrong process for 
TREATMENT. treating a given ore, is possibly, 
one of the greatest causes of failure, in starting 
a new mining enterprise. This is an art in 
itself. Take for example gold ores. One ore is 
suited best by free-milling; another requires free- 
milling and concentration; the next concentration 
only, followed by smelting, or perhaps chlorina- 
tion; a fourth works best by smelting direct. 
Some ores need fine grinding; and on others, 
coarse grinding is more economical, while occa- 
sionally it pays best, to lose as much as one-third 
of the gold in the tailings. The cost of mining 
gold varies from twentv-five cents to eighty cents 
for each dollar obtained, in large mills, working 
under different local conditions. 

This point can be decided at little cost by 
one having the special knowledge and ability in 
this direction, and no company should decide on 
the purchase of plant or the use of a process, 
until the best advice in the market is had on 
this point. Not a dollar should be spent on 
experimenting with new ideas or costly plant, 



which although thoroughly tested at some other 
mine, may not suit the ores under consideration. 
If a company be formed and money invested in a 
mining venture, it should be used for mining 
only, and the diverting of funds to any other 
purpose should be strictly tabooed. 

MINING The risk should be confined to the 
BISKS. natural, legitimate, and unavoidable 
hazard, incidental to mining, as to every other 
business. The popular idea, that mining is in it- 
self, more risky, and speculative, than other lines 
of enterprise, is a fallacy. The farmer takes 
greater chances on every crop he plants. If the 
season be too dry or too wet, or the grasshoppers 
too numerous; he gets no return. If the weather 
be propitious, it is equally so all round, and the 
extra crops make low prices, and thus his profit 
goes. The legitimate miner takes one risk only 
that of proving his mine. He takes no heed of the 
weather, and his crop is metal, and metal is 
money. What has brought mining into disre- 
pute, is incompetence, and dishonesty. Mining 
requires special skill, adaptability and experience, 
on the part of those actually operating, and that 
the general public is not familiar with the busi- 
ness gives unusual opportunity to the unscru- 
pulous, but the day of "salted" mines is passing. 
The profession of Mining Engineering is occupied 
by men of knowledge, ability, and probity, and 


the "crook," and the man who used a pretended 
familiarity with " Science" to foist his bogus 
claims to a knowledge of mining, on an innocent 
public, are rapidly being "frozen out," as the 
ignorance of the business public regarding mining 
is dispelled. 

Neither should a man undertake to mine 
himself, or under his own supervision, unless he 
is competent and experienced, arid so in selecting 
a manager. The manager should have a record 
as being skilful and economical, and must in 
addition be an all round business man. Such 
a man gets a good price for his services, and 
in mining the owner or owners can afford to 
pay it, and cannot afford to employ "cheap" 
men, or machines. 

MINING There is one peculiar feature, connect - 
STOCKS. ed with the business of mining invest- 
ment. Go to a business man and show him 
any other enterprise in which, with a medium 
amount of risk, he is assured of a profit of twenty 
or thirty per cent., and he will immediately give 
it his most serious consideration. Ask the same 
man to invest in a mining venture, and show 
him a profit of fifty per cent, per annum. In 
almost every case, he will look for more, and 
also expect the return of his entire capital, in 
addition, within a very short time, and further; 
that same man, even though he be known as one of 


the most cautious, and conservative, of investors, 
will buy stock in a mine he knows nothing 
about, at ten or twenty cents on the dollar, 
without even asking what amount the mine is 
capitalized at: after investing possibly thousands 
of dollars, he will not go a day's journey to 
inspect the property and see where his money 
is being put, or send anyoue else to examine 
into the matter on his private account. As often 
as not, he has no personal acquaintance with 
the men he entrusts with his money, and does 
not even look up their record or standing. Apply 
the same methods, figuratively, to another busi- 
ness; and it will be seen at once, why so many 
mines, which might be worked to pay handsome 
dividends, on a capital of say one hundred thou- 
sand dollars are "stocked" for millions, and 
not worked at all. An unscrupulous company 
buys a good mine, and expends perhaps, fifty 
thousand dollars, on purchase, development, and 
"floating" same. They capitalize the thing, at 
perhaps three million dollars, and offer stock, at 
say, twenty cents a dollar share. They need only 
sell half a million shares, to make 100 per cent. 
profit, and still own five sixth's interest in the 
mine. No other business, but railroad manipu- 
lation, or "sugar" trusts, can show such profits. 
No legitimate business can be expected of such 
a company, and apparently the business public 


is to blame, because, they will treat mining in- 
vestments, in a manner directly the opposite, of 
that accorded to any other offered. 

On the other hand, it is not intended to de- 
preciate, the popular method of obtaining capital 
for opening and developing mines. On the 
contrary, the advantages of joint stock companies 
over individual efforts, are many. Operations 
can be carried on, on a much larger scale, and 
thus, better economic results may be obtained, 
while the benefits are distributed amongst the 
many, instead of going to a few, to the advan- 
tage of the community at large. When failure 
is incurred, the loss also, is borne better when 
each member has but a small individual interest. 
Given the same cautious investigation and care- 
ful scrutiny before investing, mining stocks are 
shown, by statistics extending over long periods, 
to pay better and more constant dividends, than 
those of any other class, and investments in 
development mining stock, in honest and legiti- 
mate mining concerns, are likely to prove more 
profitable than shares in companies organized to 
operate in any other direction. 



13 cubic feet of ordinary gold, or silver 

ore in mine, equal i short ton 

20 cubic feet of broken quartz, equal... i " " 

1 8 cubic feet of gravel in bank, " ...i " " 

27 cubic feet of gravel, when dry, " ...i " " 

25 cubic feet of sand, equal i " " 

14 cubic feet of chalk, equal i " " 

1 8 cubic feet of marl, equal i " * 

18 cubic feet of earth, in bank, equal...! " " 

27 cubic feet of earth, when dry, " ...i " " 

17 cubic feet of clay, equal i " " 

44.8 cubic feet of bituminous coal, bro- 
ken, equal i long ton 

42.3 cubic feet of anthracite, broken, 

equal i " " 

123 cubic feet of charcoal, equal i " " 

70.9 cubic feet of coke, equal i " " 

The number of cubic feet of ore in a ton, is 

got by ascertaining the specific gravity; water 
being taken as the standard. One cubic foot of 
water weighs 62^ Ibs. therefore, 32 cubic feet 
weigh one ton ( 2,000 Ibs. ) The specific gravity 
of iron ore is, say 4 therefore; 8 cubic feet equal 
one ton, or in other words, one fourth of 32, the 
bulk of water. 


Cast Iron being the Unit. 

Cast Iron i ,000 

Wrought Iron i ,072 

Copper Rolled 1,226 

Tin i ,01 5 

Zinc 947 

Brass 1,170 

Steel i ,086 

Lead 1,574 

Gold 2 , 702 

Silver i ,448 

Mercury i ,880 


Cubic Feet 
Metals Lbs. 

Brass 488.75 

" in sheets 512.6 

" in wire 524.16 

Copper, cast 543.625 

" plates 547.25 . 

Iron, cast 450.437 

" plates 486.75 

" wrought bars 481.5 

Lead, cast 79-5 

" rolled 711.75 

Mercury (60 degrees) 848.7487 

Steel-plates 487.75 

" soft 489.562 

Tin 455.687 

Zinc, cast 488.812 

' ' rolled . 440.437 


For boiler; 7^ gallons per H.P. per hour. For 
each stamp; 72 gallons per hour. For each pan; 
1 20 gallons per hour. For each settler; 60 gal- 
lons per hour. If the water be run into settling 
tanks it may be used again, less considerable 
loss; say about twenty-five per cent. 


will discharge 2.250 cubic feet of water; equal 
to about 17,000 gallons in 24 hours. A gallon 
of water weighs (U.S. standard) 8^ pounds, and 
contains 231 cubic inches. 


multiply the depth by the width, and this by 
the rate per minute, (which can be found by 
floating chips, a measured distance, and timing 
them.) This gives the number of cubic feet, or 
volume per minute, Multiply the volume by 62^ 
(the weight of one cubic foot), and multiply this 
by the height of fall. Divide the total result by 
33,000 (pounds) and the result, is the horse 
power of a turbine wheel. In practise only 80 
per cent, of this power may be relied on. A 


horse power, is a power which will raise 33,000 
pounds, one foot, in one minute. 


To temper drill steel cool down to 430 de- 
grees to 450 degrees, which is respectively ; a 
faint yellow; and a pale straw color. 

To temper knives for wood, soft metals, etc. 
cool down to 510 degrees to 537 degrees. A 
brown, with purple spots a purple. 

To temper axes, cold chisels, etc. cool down 
to 550 to 560 degrees. Dark blue to bright blue. 

To temper saws, springs, etc. cool down to 
600. Grayish blue, nearly black. 

In steel heated higher than this, the effect 
of the hardening process is lost. A handful of 
salt in the water vessel, will aid in obtaining a 
hard temper. 


For iron or steel; borax or sal-ammoniac. 
For tinned iron; resin, or chloride of zinc. For 
copper and brass; sal-ammoniac, or chloride of 
zinc. For zinc; chloride of zinc. For lead; 
tallow or resin. For lead and tin pipes; resin 
and sweet oil. 


Heat the article, after polishing, to a bright 
red, rub with prussiate of potash, allow to cool 
to dull red, and immerse in water. 




Two ounces sal-ammoniac, one ounce Sulphur, 
and 16 ounces cast-iron filings. Mix well in a 
mortar, and keep dry. When using, take one 
part of this powder to 20 parts clear iron filings, 
make into stiff paste with water, and it is ready 
for use. 


Equal parts red and white lead, with linseed 


Water boils at 212 degrees F. 

Ice becomes fluid at 32, degrees F. 

Mercury 38.2 degrees F. 

Sulphur 230 " " 

Tin 446 

Bismuth 480 

Lead 612 

Zinc 680 

Antimony 842 " " 

Bronze 1652 " " 

Silver 1873 " " 

Copper 1996 

Gold 20122282 

Cast Iron 2786 " " 

Steel 23722552 

Bar Iron 2732 3012 " " 

Platinum 4532 " " 

Glass 2377 " " 



Babbit Metal Tin, 89; Copper, 3. 7; Antimony, 7. 3. 
Yellow Brass Copper, 66; Zinc, 34. 
Gun Metal, Valves, etc. Copper, go; Tin, 10. 
White Brass Copper, 10; Zinc, 80; Tin, 10. 
German Silver Copper, 33.3; Zinc, 33.4; 

Nickel, 33.3. 
Church Bells Copper, 80; Zinc, 5.6; Tin, 10.1; 

Lead, 4.3. 

Gongs Copper, 81.6; Tin, 18.4. 
Lathe Bushes Copper 80; Tin, 20. 
Bearings--Copper, 87.5; Tin, 12.5. 
Muntz Metal Copper, 60; Zinc, 40. 
Sheathing Plates Copper, 56; Zinc, 44. 


Cord air-dried Hickory, or Hard Maple; weighs 
4,500 Ibs., and is equal to 2,000 Ibs. coal. 

Cord air dried White Oak, weighs 3850 Ibs., 
and is equal to 1715 Ibs. of coal. 

Cord air-dried Beech, Red or Black Oak, 
weighs 3250 Ibs., and is equal to 1450 Ibs. of coal. 

Cord air-dried Poplar, Chestnut, or Elm, weighs 
2350 Ibs., and is equal to 1050 Ibs, of coal. 

Cord air-dried average Pine, weighs about 
2,000 Ibs., and is equal to 925 Ibs. of coal. 

We may assume from the above ; that 2^ 
Ibs. of dry wood, is about equal to one pound 
of soft coal, no matter whether the wood be pine 


or maple, so long as it is dry. A good boiler 
should evaporate 7 to 10 Ibs. of water per Ib. 
of good coal. In practice, only 75 per cent, of 
this is attained. 


Varying with Local Conditions. 


Gold and Silver ore, to mine, from $1.00 to $5.00 

Freemilling.. -. " i.oo " 2.00 

Concentration " .50 " 3.00 

Treatment of concentrates, " 3.00 " 15.00 

Roasting-milling " 8.00 " 15.00 

Chlorination " 3.00 " 12.00 

Smelting to matte " 5.00" 30.00 

Copper ore costs to mine " .50 " 2.50 

Smelting to matte " 3.00" " 6.00 

Smelting to black copper... " 7.00 " 10.00 

Nickel-copper ores : 

Smelting to matte " 2.50" 5.00 

Refining matte " 100.00 " 200.00 

Silver-lead ores : 

Smelting to base bullion " 5.00 " 10.00 

Iron ores cost to mine....; " .25 " 1.50 

Smeltingtopig,perton of iron, " 10.00 " 14.00 

A breaker with capacity of say 20 tons per 
diem, (crushing to nut size) costs about $250, 
and requires about 4 H.P. 

A mill or pulverizer, crushing 20 tons per 
day, costs about $1,500, and requires about 8 H.P. 


A concentrating plant, treating about 20 tons 
per day, costs about $2,000, and uses about 2 H.P. 

An amalgamator, treating about 20 tons per 
day, will cost about $1,500. 

A small prospecting plant, complete for free- 
milling gold ore, will cost about $500. 

Three men drilling ten hours by hand, will 
make 15 to 16 feet on an average. 

A steam drill will make an average of about 
45 feet ; an air drill, 50 to 55 feet per day. 


Adit. A tunnel into a hill. 

Aerolites. Masses of metallic, or stony matter 

which have fallen on the earth from other 


Albite. Soda Feldspar. Triclinic. 
Alkaline. Containing an alkali; as soda, or 

Alliaceous. The odor of garlic; given off by 


Alluvium. Gravel diggings. Drift. 
Alloy. A compound of metals. 
Amalgam. Mercury combined with gold or other 


Amorphous. Without form. 
Anorthite. Lime Feldspar. 
Arastra. A Mexican mill for grinding ore, by 

dragging large stones around in a circular 

pit, stone lined, and having quicksilver in 

the bottom with the ore. 
Arenaceous. Sandy; applied to rocks. 
Argentiferous. Silver-bearing. 
Argillaceous. Containing clay. The odor of wet 

Artesian Wells. Are holes bored through solid 

strata, and often overflow. 
Assaying. Smelting samples to test the ore. 


A uriferous. Gold-bearing. 
Azoic. Without life. 

Back. The ground between a drift and the sur- 

Battery. A set of stamps. 

Bed. A layer of rock. 

Bedrock. The solid rock under a clay or gravel 

Belt. A range of metal-bearing rocks. 

Bituminous. Carrying mineral pitch. 

Bitter Spar. Crystal Dolomite. 

Black-Jack. Dark zinc blende. 

Blacksand. The last dirt left in panning gold. 
Magnetic iron sand. 

Boulder. Any rounded loose rock. 

Brace. The collar at the mouth of a shaft. 

Breast. The face, or front, at which a miner 

Buddie. The tub used to wash slimes. 

Bunch. A rich pocket of ore. 

Cage. The lift in a mine. 

Cam. The curved pin which raises the stamp 

in a mill. 

Calcareous. Containing Carbonate of Lime. 
Calcining. Burning, or roasting ores. 
Canon. A deep ravine or gorge, with precipitous 

Caprock. Any rock which covers an ore bed. 


Carbonate. Applied to oxides, when carbonic 
acid is united. 

Casing. The sheathing, or parting between the 
wall, and vein. 

Chlorides. Combinations of chlorine with metals. 

Choke-damp. Carbonic acid gas. 

Chute. An incline having depth without horizon- 
tal length. 

Coke. The residue after the bitumen is driven 
out of coal. 

Clastic. Fra^mental. When a rock is composed 
of pieces. 

Cleavage. The property of splitting in one di- 

Color. Any show, or speck of gold in the pan. 

Contact Veins. Veins running between two for- 

Cradle. A wooden trough on rockers, for washing 

Creep. The sinking of rock from stoping ore. 

Cross Course. Any vein crossing the one worked. 

Cross Cut. A level run across the vein. 

Cupriferous. Copper-bearing. 

Dead Work. Removing dead ground, viz.; barren 
rock ; to get at the ore. 

Dip. The angle at which a vein lies from the 

Divide. Any continuous range of mountains from 
which the streams flow in opposite directions. 


The Rocky Mountains are called The Great 

Drift. Loose Rock. A level run on the strike 


Druse. A cavity lined with crystals. 
Dump. The waste pile. 

Dunes. Heaps of sand blown up by the wind. 
Dyke. Any igneous rock which has filled a fissure 

in a straight line, and stands above the level. 

Erosion. The act of being gradually worn away. 
Thus valleys are made by running water. 

Face. The end of a drift or level. 

Fault. Where the strata has been shoved to one 
side, or up, or down. 

Feeder. A small vein leading to a larger one. 

Feldspar. A constituent of many rocks. There 
are many kinds composed of silicates of 
aluminum, and of alkalies, and lime. Hard- 

Ferruginous. Relating to iron. 

Fire Damp. Carburetted hydrogen gas. 

Fissure Veins. Veins filling a rent in solid rock. 

Float. Loose ore or rock that has been misplaced. 

Floor. The bottom. 

Flour-Gold. Gold in a very fine state of division. 

Flume. A sluice-way for water. 

Flux. Anything mixed with ore, to produce slags. 

Footwall. The lower wall of a vein. 



Formation. The form, or structure of the country 


Freestone. Sandstone easily dressed. 
Fusion. The state of melting. 

Gad. A pointed iron wedge, used for splitting 
rock. (Cornish.) 

Galena. A lead ore, the sulphide. 

Gallery. A level from which the ore has been 

Gangue. The vein matter, or matrix, holding 
the ore. 

Geodes. Rounded hollow nodules of rock, gene- 
rally containing crystals. 

Glance. A term formerly used to specify bright 
shining ores. 

Gossan. The decomposed matter on or in an 
ore deposit, composed of iron oxide. 

Grassroots. The surface above a mine. 

Hackly. Having a surface of rough points when 

Hade. The slope of a vein, usually applied to 

a fault. 
Hanging Wall. The wall on the upper side of a 


Horse. A mass of rock in a vein. 
Hydraulic Cement. Sets under water. Made from 

limestone containing alumina, magnesia, and 



Hydraulic Mining. Mining placer gold with a 
stream of water under pressure. 

Igneous. Applied to all rocks cooled from a state 

of fusion. 
In situ. In fixed place. 

Jamb. Any thick rock which cuts off the vein. 
Jigging. A method of sorting ore, by shaking 
in a sieve in water. 

Kies. The sulphides separated from the rock 

Kibble. An ore bucket. 

Lapidary. One who works in gems; also ap- 
plied to dealers. 

Lead. A dry river bed yielding ore. 

Lean. Poor in metal. 

Litharge. An oxide of lead, used in assaying. 

Lithology. The study of rocks. Geology applies 
to formations of the Earth. 

Lode. A regular vein carrying metal. 

Loam. A mixture of sand and clay. 

Long Tom. A wooden trough for washing gravel. 

Magma. The liquid matter within the earth, the 
source of igneous rocks. 

Massive. Not stratified. Without cleavage. 

Matrix. The body or "paste" of any rock- en- 
closing fragments. 

Metamorphic. Changed in form and structure. 


Mine. A deposit of ore, which has been worked 
sufficiently to prove its commercial value. 

Mineral. Any substance taken from the earth. 
In mining, any ore containing metal in 
commercial quantities. 

Muffle. An oxidizing furnace. 

Native. As applied in mineralogy, means metal 

found pure, or refined by nature. 
Nugget. Any lump of native metal. 

Open Cast. Any working not underground. 

Ore. Applied to any mineral of commercial value, 
when mined. 

Outcrop. The exposure of rock on the surface. 

Outlier. Any portion of a group of rocks, lying 
in a detached position, or out from the main 

Oxide. A compound of oxygen with other ele- 

Parting. A thin stratum, or layer, which sepa- 
rates two formations ; also called a selvage. 

Peat. Solid vegetable matter in a bog. 

Petrify. To become stone. 

Phosphates. Phosphoric acid combinations. 

Pinched. When a vein is contracted. 

Placers. Gravel diggings on bed rock. 

Prill. A good sized piece of pure ore. 

Prospect. A vein or other deposit not yet proved 
to be a mine. 


Pulverize. To reduce to powder or dust. 
Pumice. A light, porous lava. 
Quartz. Silica. Forming rock, and a common 
mineral in most rocks. 

Range. A mineral-bearing belt of rocks. 

Reef. A ridge ; in mining a vein which outcrops 
along a range of hills. 

Riffles. Bars laid across the bottom of a sluice- 
box, to catch the heavy sands and coarse 

Rock. The stony portion of the earth's crust. 

Rocker. A cradle for washing gravel. 

Royalty. A duty on the product of a mine. 

Sampling Works. Small plants for testing ores 

on a working scale. 

Selvage. The sheathing between wall and vein. 
Silica. Silex or Quartz. 
Siliceous. Quartz-bearing. 
Shaft. The vertical opening to any underground 


Shale. Fissile argillaceous rock. Generally soft. 
Shift. The time one set of men work. 
Slag. The scoria or waste from a furnace. 
Slickensides. Smoothed surfaces on the walls of 

a vein. 

Slope. An inclined opening to a mine. 
Stockwerke. A number of veins running together 

with the enclosing rock mineralized. 


Stope. To remove the ore. 

Sloping Ground. The ore blocked out ready to 

Stratified. Showing more or less distinct and 
separate layer or strata. 

Streak. The color of a mineral when scratched. 

Streak Powder. The powder obtained by filing a 
piece of mineral. 

Strike. The horizontal course of vein or forma- 

Stringer. A small vein leading to the main vein. 

Stripping. Uncovering an ore-body on the surface. 

Stull. The platform used in overhead stoping. 

Sulphureous. The odor of burning sulphur. 

Sulphurets. Metals combined with sulphur. 

Sump. A well in a mine to collect the water. 

Swab.- The stick used to clean out blast holes. 

Swamp-Ore. Bog iron is sometimes called swamp- 
ore, when found in low, wet ground. 

Synclinical. The trough formed by the down- 
ward inclination of the strata from each side. 
The Anticlinal being the ridge formed when 
the strata dips in opposite directions. 

Tailings. The waste material from a mill. 

Tamp. To hammer loose earth into a blast hole. 

Trap. Any volcanic rock. 

Tufa. Any open porous rock. 

Tunnel. A level into a hill. 

Unctuous. Having a greasy feel, like soapstone. 


Underlie. The angle of a vein from the perpen- 

Upthrow. An upward displacement of the side 
of a fault. 

Veinstone. The mineral in a vein which holds 

the ore. 

Vitreous. The lustre of broken glass. 
Vug. A cavity in a vein. 

Weathered. Changed by exposure to the weather. 
Whim. A large drum for hoisting by horse-power. 
Whin. The Scotch name for hornstone. 
Winze. An opening from one level to another 

Zone. Used to specify a certain geological posi- 
tion, of a strata or layer of rock. 


A BBREVIATIONS . . . . 30, 31 

** Acids 28, 33, 84, 85 

Actinolite 83 

Advertisements 149-152 

Agates 94, 98 

Alabaster 79 

Alum 75 

Aluminum 61, 74, 94 

Alloys Common. . .125, 126 

Amalgamation 4~43 

Amber 90 

Amethyst 98 

Amphibole 82 

Analysis 24, 101 

Anthracite 86 

Antimony 34. 43 

Apatite 79, 85 

Aquamarine 95 

Aqua Regia 38, 49 

Argillites 19 

Argentite 44 

Arsenic 33-42, 64, 85 

Native 85 

Arsenopyrite 64, 85 

Assay Samples for 101 

Value of. . . . 103, 109 ! 

Asbestos 82 

Asbolite 57 

Asphaltum 87 

Atomic Weights 31,32 | 

Aventurine 98 

Azurite 52 

"DAROMETER. Natural.. 92 

Barium 72, 80 

Barite 69, 80 

Basalt . . 20 


74, 75 

Beaver Mine. Cut of. . . 106 

Bell Metal Ore 60 

Beryl 95 

Bessemer Steel 65 

Biotite 83 

Bismuth 60, 61 

Bituminous Coal 86 

Black Cobalt 57 

Black Hills 41 

Black Jack 62 

Blacklead 41 , 72 

Blanket Veins 17 

Blende 36, 60, 62 

Bloodstone 99 

Blowpipe, The 28, 109 

"Blowpipe Practice" 28 

Blueite 57 

Bog Ore 17, 67, 69, 70 

Bornite 51 

Breccia 19 

Bromyrite 45 

Bromic Silver 45 

1 4 o 


Brown Coal 86 

Brown Iron Ore 67, 89 

/CADMIUM 30, 61, 62 

^^ Cairngorm Stone .... 98 

Calamine 62 

Calcite 21 

Calcium 79 

California Gold 35 

Cameos 99 

Capital 112 

Capillary Pyrites 55 

Carbon 71, 72, 93 

Carbonates Copper 53 

" Manganese. . .70 

" of Soda 29 

Zinc 62 

Carnelian 98 

Carter-Walker process, 42, 43 

Case-hardening 124 

Cash Offer, A n 

Casing 18 

Cassiterite 60 

Catseye 99 

Celescite 80 

Cements 80, 126 

Cerargyrite 45 

Cerium 81 

Cerussite 47 

Chalcedony 98 

Chalcocite 51 

Chalcopyrite 51 

Chalk 20 

French 20, 82 

Chapman, Prof. E. J 30 

Chemical Reactions. . . 24-30 

Chemists 32, 101 

Chert 20 

Chloride of Sodium. . .73, 81 

Chlorination 42 

Chlorine 42 

Chromite 67 

Chromium 3. 95 

Chrysocolla 52 

Chrysoprase . . 98 

Cinnabar 50, 89 

Clay China 76, 77 

Coal 86, 87 

Cobaltite 56 

Cobalt (See Nickel.) 

Glance 56 

Color 24,25 

Contents 5. 6, 7 

Copper 24, 30, 36, 50, 89 

" Ores 51, 52, 53 

Nickel 56 

Combining Weights 31 

Conglomerates 15, 19 

Contact Veins 17, 93 

Concentration. . . .41, 42, 128 

Coral Islands 14 

Core Drills 108, 112, 113 

Cornish Tin Mines 60 

Corundum 75, 91 

Crooks Frozen out . . . . 1 18 

Cryolite 76 

Crystals 91, 92 

Crystalline Limestone, 21, 

23- .79- 
Crystallization 24, 27 


Cuprite 82 

T^AKOTA Tin Mines, 60, 103 
*-^ Dana, Prof. J. D. ..27 

Deposits Ore 16, 17 

Derbyshire Spar 78 

Describing Mines. . . 112, 115 

Diamonds 24, 91, 92, 93 

Diamond Drill, The 113 

Diamond Rock 21, 93 

Diaphaniety 26 

Didymium 81 

Diorite 20, 55 

Dipneedle 66, 108 

Dolerite 20, 94 

Dolomite 20, 77 

"Dolly" 39, 40 

Drills 113, 114 

Dry bone 62 

Dykes Trap 15, 22, 93 

Dynamite 90, 108 

~C*ARTH, Thickness of the, 19 
"~* Elements, List of, 31,32 
Emeralds 91, 92, 95 

Emer y 75, 95 

Erubiscite 51 

Eruptive Rocks 15 

Explanatory Notes, 28,30-34 
Exploring 9, 103-110 

T^ARMING Risksof. . . . 117 
Feldspar Common, 75 

Finds, Value of 10 

Fire-Clay 76, 77 

Fissure-Veins . . . . 16 

Fleches d 'amour 99 

Flexible Sandstone 21, 93 

Flint 20 

Fluorite 78 

Fluorspar 78 

Footwall 18 

Foliated Talc 82 

Folgerite 57 

Fowlerite 78 

Franklinite 67 

Freemilling 39, 40, 41 

French Chalk 20, 82 

Frue Vanners 41, 42 

Fuel, Wood as 126 

Furnaces 48, 58, 59 

Fusibility of Metals 125 

i~* ABBRO 20 

^^ Galena 17, 33, 104 

Garnets 91 , 97 

Garnierite 57 

Gash-Veins 17 

Gems QJ-96 

Gersdorffite 56 

Glance 44 

Glossary 139-148 

Gneiss 13, 20 

Gold 30, 35, 115, 1 16 

" Ores 35, 36, 116 

" Native 35 

" To test for. .37, 38, 103 

" "Dolly" 39, 40 

" Treatment of, 40-42, 116 
" Freemilling Ore ... .41 
" Value of 36, 39 

1 4 2 


Gossan 16 

Granite 13, 20 

Graphite 71, 72, 89 

Gravel Auriferous, 36, 103, 

Gravity, Specific ... .24, 121 

Gray Copper 52 

Greenockite 61 

Gypsum 79 

T TARDNEss-Scale of. 24, 

30, 109. 
Hardness-Chapman's Scale, 


Heavy Spar 36, 80 

Heliotrope 99 

Hematite 65, 89 

Brown 67 

Horneblende 19, 82 

Horning 41 

Hornstone 20 

Hyacinth 97 

Hydraulic Limestone. . . .80 

Hydromica Schist 21 

Hydrous Copper Silicate . . 52 

TGNEOUS ROCKS. . 15, 23, 103 

Illustrations 8 

Indurated Sandstone 22 

Infusorial Earth 90 

Investor in Stocks.. 119, 120 

Iridium 73 

Iridosmine 36, 73 

Iron Ores of 30, 63 

" Bearing Rocks ..19, 36 

Ironstone 67 

Itacolumite 21, 93 

Jasper 21,99 

Jet 86 

Joint Stock Companies. . 120 

T/ r AOLIN 76 

Kimberly Mines, 93, 94 
"Kit," Prospector's, 108, 109 


*~* Land Plaster 79 

Lanthanum 81 

Lead 30, 37 

" Ores 3.47 IO 4 

" Silver in 33 

Lepidolite 83 

Lignite . . . .' 86 

Lime, Phosphate of.. 79, 85 
Limestone. . 15, 21, 23, 79, 80 

Limonite 67 

Linnaeite 55 

| Lithia 30, 83, 84 

Lithium 84 

Lithographic Stone 80 

Liver Ore 50 

Lodes 16, 99 

Lodestone 27, 67 

Love's Arrows 99 

Lustre 26 


I Magnesium 72 

I Magnetic Iron Ore 66 


Magnetic Pyrites. .33, 54, 64 

Magnetism 27 

Magnetite 36, 66, 67, 89 

Malachite 53 

Malleability 26 

Manganese, Ores of, 30, 69, 89 

Spar 78 

Marl 77 

Marble 21, 22, 79 

Matte 58, 115 

Measuring Water-power, 123 

Measures of Ore 121 

Mercury .... 34, 36, 40, 49, 50 
Metals-Weights and Mea- 
sures 122 

Metals-Fusible point of. . 125 

To Temper 124 

Metallic Ores 36 

Metamorphic rocks 15 

Mica 19, 38, 83 

" Schist 14, 21, 22 

Microscope, The .... 30, 37 

Millerite 55 

Mineralogy, Study of. . 13, 27, 
100, 107, 109. 

Mineral Oil 87 

Pitch 87 

Resin 90 

Wool 88 

Mines-" Salted" 117 

Ho w to Develop 

Miner's Inch 123 

Mining Dividends 119 

" Profits of 120 

Risks of. ... 117, 118 

Mining, When to begin, 115, 

Stocks. .118, 119, 120 

Mispickel 43, 64, 65, 85 

Mohs' Scale of Hardness, 25 

Molybdenite 70, 71 

Monazite 36, 81 

Moonstone 76 

Moss Agate 99 

Muscovite 83 

Natural Compass.. 67 

Natural Gas ..87 

Paints 89 

Niccolite 56 

Nickel 30, 54, 64, 104 

" and Cobalt Ores 54 

Nickeliferous Pyrrhotite, 54, 


Non-Magnetic Ore 63 

Nuggets 36,49 

OCHRES 67, 89 
Oil-Mineral 87 

Oil of Vitriol 84 

Onyx 99 

Operations-Scale of Mining, 

Opals 91,96 

Ore Deposits 16, 19, 102, 104 
Ores-How to Distinguish, 
24-30, 32. 

Ores-Metallic 36 

" Non-Metallic 74 



Ores, Cubic feet of ...... 121 

" Measures of ...... 121 

Selling ...... 114, 115 

" Selectingtreatment, 116 
Orpiment .............. 85 

Orthoclase .............. 75 

Osmium ................ 73 

Ozokerite Ozocerite ... .87 

, NATURAL . .89, 90 
Palladium .......... 72 

Panning ............ 36, 104 

Paraffine .............. 87 

Paystreak .............. 18 

Peat .................. 88 

Petroleum .............. 86 

Phosphate of Lime ...... 79 

Phoshates ............ 60, 82 

Phosphorous ........ 31, 85 

Pitchblende .......... 73,88 

Placers ...... 16, 36, 39, 103 

Plant, Cost of ...... 127, 128 

Plaster of Paris ...... 29, 79 

Platinum ........ 28, 30, 49 

Plumbago .......... 71 , 72 

Pockets-Ore ............ 17 

Porphyry .............. 22 

Potstone ................ 82 

Power, Horse .......... 124 

Water .......... 123 

Practical Pointers ...... 106 

Prase .......... _. ....... 98 

Precious Stones ...... 75, 91 

Preface ................ 3,4 

Prospects ... .9, 12, TIO, in 

Prospecting 9, 102, 105 

Prospector, The 9, in 

Prospector's " Kit " .... 108 

Proustite 45 

Psilomelane 69 

Puddingstone 19 

Pyrargy rite 45 

Pyrite-Iron 36, 37, 59, 63 

Pyrites-Copper 24, 51 

Magnetic 33, 64 

Tin 60 

Pyrolusite 69, 70 

Pyrrhotite 33, 64 

QUARTZ 16, 91 
Quartz Gems .... 97, 98 
Quartz, Gold.. 37, 38, 39, 40 

" Veins 37 

Milling 39, 40 

Water re- 
quired 123 

Quartzite 22, 23 

Quicksilver, 34, 36, 40, 49, 50 

"D AILWAY 1 10 

*^- Rare Metals 72, 73 

Reagents 28, 29 

Realgar 85 

Red Copper Ore 52 

Red Zinc Ore 62 

Refiners 45 

Refining Ores 58, 128 

Retorts 63 

Rhodium 73 

Rhodochrosite 70 


Rhodonite 78 

Rocks, Iron-bearing 19 

Names of .... 19-22 
" How formed, 13, 14, 15 

Rock Crystals 98 

Rock Salt 81 

Rose Quartz 98 

Route, How to choose a, 102, 

Rubies 91, 92 

Rutile 99 

C ALE, How to make a, 105, 
^ no, in. 

Salt, Rock 81 

Samples, Dealer in 109 

Numbering. . . . 101 
Selecting. . 101, 109 
Quantity to send 

for Assay 101 

Sapphires 94> 95 

Sard 98 

Satin Spar 79 

Sedimentary Rocks.. 15, 87 

Selenite 79 

Selenium 29, 30 

Selvage 18 

Sepiolite 77 

Serpentine 22, 80 

Shale 75-77 

Siderite 67 

Silica 88,97 

Silicate Cotton 88 

Silicified Wood 98 

Silver 30, 37, 44, 70, 106 

Smaltite 56 

Smelting 58, 127 

Furnaces. . . .58, 59 

Smithsonite 62, 63 

Soapstone 22, 82 

Sodium 73 

Chloride of 73 

! Soft Coal 86 

Spar 16 

I Spathic Iron 67 

i Specific Gravity, 24, 28, 121 

! Specular Iron Ore 65 

i Sperrylite 49 

' Sphalerite 62 

Stannite 60 

1 Steatite 22,82 

| Steel, To temper or weld, 124 

Stephanite 45 

Stibnite 43 

Stockwerke 17 

Stone Coal 86 

Stones, Precious 91 

i Stratified Rocks 15 

i Streak 24,25,26 

i Stream Tin 59, 103 

: Strontia 3. 80, 81 

Succinite 9 

Sudbury 49 

Nickel Ores 54 

Platinum Ores.. 49 

I Sulphur 29, 33, 84 

Native 84 

Sulphuric Acid 63, 84 

Sunstone 7 6 

Syenite 22 



Synonyms 31 , 32 

''T'ALC 22, 24, 82 

Talcose Schist 22 

Tellurium 36, 72 

Temperature ig 

Tempering Steel 124 

Tetrahedrite 52 

Thorium 81 

Tin Ores ... .30, 59, 60, 103 

Titanic Acid 33 

Topaz 96, 98 

False 98 

Trap 15, 20, 22, 103 

Triphylite 84 

Tripolite 90 

Tufa 94 

Turquoise 95 


^ Uranium 73,88 

Useful Tables 121 

^\ TALUE of Gold 35 

V Value of Silver 47 

Value of a Prospect .... 9, 10 
Vermillion 50, 89 

Veins 16, 18 

" Contact 17 

" Fissure 16 

" How to open, 37, 104, 

" Paying 18 

W AD 7 

Water for quartz mil- 
ling 123 

Water Power, Calculating, 

Weights of Ores 121 

" of Metals. . 122, 123 
Relative, of Metals, 

of Water 123 

of Wood as fuel ,126 
Whartonite 57, 81 



^INC 30, 34, 46, 61, 67 

^ Zincite 62 

Zircon 36, 67 









Any Book sent postpaid on receipt of price. The M. Rogers 
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Qualitative Chemical Analysis. By C. R. Fresenius. 

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Mineral Indicator, The. By Prof. Chapman New edition. 

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i2ino. 310 pages. 4 illustrated plates. Cloth. 2 25 

The Metallurgy of Silver. By M. Eissler. i2ino. 362 

pages. 150 illustrated plates. Cloth. 4 25 

Highly recommended. Every process. 
Lead, Argentiferous, The Metallurgy of. By Eissler. 

(1892). 121110. 396 pages. 183 illustrations. Cloth. 5 00 

Covers the whole field. 
Copper Smelting, Modern American Methods of. By 

E. D. Peters. 8vo. 398 pages Illustrated plates. Cloth. 4 00 

A record of practical experience, in all kinds of ores, including 

Tin Mining. By A. G. Charleton. 8vo. 14 plates. Cloth. 4 25 

Mining, Smelting, Tin and Arsenic Bismuth, etc. 

Sulphuric Acid. By G. Lunge. 8vo. 3 vols. Cloth. 35 00 

Including Alkali with collateral branches. 

Sulphuric Acid. The Manufacture of. By A. G. and 

C. G. Locke. 8vo. 77 constructive plates. Cloth. 21 00 

Alkali Trade, The. By C. T. Kingzett. 8vo. 247 pages 

23 illustrations. Cloth. 2 50 

History, Products and Processes. Treatment of wastes. 

Metallurgy of Iron, The. By H. Bauerman i2mo. 523 

pages. 49 illustrations. Cloth. 2 00 

Methods of analyses and manufacture of Iron and Steel. 

Quarryman and Contractors Guide. By A. Kirk. 4 to. 
147 pages. 160 illustrations. Cloth 
Gives prices and estimates. 

Stoneworking Machinery. By M. P. Bale. i2mo. 177 

pages. 40 illustrations. Cloth. 3 50 

Very few books on this subject are published. 





Any Book sent to any address in the world free 
on receipt of price. 


We have arranged to supply specimens of any of the 
Ores described in "HIDDEN MINES" as follows (in three col- 
lections to suit our customers), free of carriage on receipt of 

No. 1 Collection, 50 Specimens, - - Price, $ 3 00 

No. 2 68 - 6 00 

No. 3 " all Ores described, - " 12 00 

Less than ten cents each. 

Sparks from a Geologist's Hammer. By A. Winchell, 

L.L.D. 12010. Cloth. $2 00 

A splendid work for the geologist. Short sketches on interest- 
ing geological subjects. 

Petrology. By H. F. Hatch. 12010. 43 illustrations. Cloth. 1 25 
Blowpipe Practice. By Prof E. J. Chapman. 2 50 

A complete guide to the determination of all minerals by the 
Quantitative Analysis, A System of. ByC. R. Fresenius. 

New nomenclature. loth edition. 8vo. 900 pages. Cloth. 6 00 

Any Book sent postpaid on receipt of price. The M. Rogers 
Publishing Co., Toronto, Canada. 

Gems and Precious Stones of the United States. 

By G. K. Kunz, expert for Tiffany & Co. 410. Illustrated. 
Cloth. 10 0o 

Contains 8 plates in the finest color work executed. Plates alone. 500 

Lumberman's Handbook of Inspection and Grad- 
ing. 241110. 262 pages. Cloth. 2 25 

Lumberman's Directory. A large 4 to. volume of 685 pages. 

Cloth. 7 00 

Very valuable to all engaged in the lumber business. 

Mineralogy, Text Book Of. By J. D. Dana. 537 pages. 

837 illustrations. Cloth. 3 50 

Recommended to the student of Crystallography. 

Mineralogy, Dana's New System of. By J. D. and E. S. 

Dana. Very large 8vo. 1197 pages. 1425 cuts. 1250 

The most important treatise ever published in the English lan- 
guage on the subject. 

Limestones and Marbles, uses of. By S. M. Burnham. 

8vo. 398 pages. 48 fine chromo lithos. Cloth 6 00 

Earthy and other Minerals and Mining. By D. C. 

Davies. 121110. 336 pages. 76 illustrations. Cloth. 5 00 

Minerals and Mining, Metalliferous. By D. C. Davies. 

i2mo. 438 pages. 148 illustrations. Cloth. 5 00 

A good book on .Mining. 

Asbestos, its properties, occurrence and uses. By 

R. H. Jones. i2mo. Illustrated plates. Cloth. 5 00 

The authority on this subject. 

Assaying, a Manual of Practical. By John Mitchell. 
6th edition, by Wm. Crookes. 8vo. 1000 pages. 201 illustra- 
tions. Cloth. 10 00 
No practical assayer should be without it. 

Assayer'S Manual. By Bruno Kerl. 8vo. 354 pages. 130 

illustrations. Cloth. 3 00 

Among the latest and best books on assaying. 

Assaying, Notes on and Assay Schemes. By P. de P. 
Ricketts. i3th edition. 208 pages. Cloth. 
An excellent work. 

Blasting Rock, Explosive Compounds, Machine 

Drills and Blasting. By H. S. Drinker. 4 to. Cloth. 5 00 

Mining Machinery. By G. G. Andre. 2 vols. 4 to. 182 

plates drawn to scale. Cloth. 15 00 

Prospecting, hauling, mining, hoisting and Metallurgical Ma- 

Accidents in Mines. By A. R. Sawyer. 8vo. 300 illustra- 
tions, many colored. Excellent for mine captains. Cloth. 7 00 

Comstock Lode, its formation and History. By J. 

A. Church. 410. 6 plates, ^'illustrations. Cloth. 5 OO 



Prospects or Mines examined promptly, no 
matter where located. 

, tit, 

to place Mining Properties properly on the market, 
prepared on short notice and accuracy guaranteed. 


Surface and underground prospecting and development work supervis- 
ed ; also working plans, and estimates, for opening and operating mines, 
including complete Plants for winning and reducing ore carefully prepared. 


If you have Mining Property send me samples, and full description, 
and obtain a business opinion as to probable value. Do not waste money 
on worthless property, nor lose an opportunity that is valuable. 





Correspondence desired. Any information relating to Ontario 
Mines furnished promptly. 


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University of Toront 

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